The cell being in permanent futile search – is a cancer cell. This hypothesis was set forward by Russian scientists Yuri Vasiliev and I.M. Gelfand in the review article published in the Biochemistry journal (2006, Volume 71, No. 8).
For an organism to originate from cells, it is necessary that cells could find each other. To this end, they undertake searching migrations. As a rule, searching migration has two stages. At the search stage, a group of cells or even not cells per se but their processes move in a random way along acellular spaces of the organism, one might say, they fumble about by touch. Some of them grope after something, and then there comes a stage of choice for them. Migrating cells that have achieved definite places in the organism, stop and start differentiation. Embyronic growth is impossible without searching migration. In particular, when the nervous system is being formed, nerve cells of the spinal cord rudiment release processes (axons) into the body cavity, the processes touch the cavity and within some time they hit on some “target”, for example, muscle rudiments. Then synapse - neuromuscular junction - occurs. Axons from other sections of the brain find rudiments of other organs. Vessel growth can also be considered as peculiar searching reactions, where ends of ramifying capillaries are at first looked for, and then the territory is selected for blood supply. Wound healing begins with searching migration. The choice is as follows: a cell may find its place and make part of an organ or a tissue, or it may not. Unsuccessful search is a commonplace. Thus, when neuromuscular contacts are being formed, only the minority of axons manage to grope the “target”. All other axons and the cells they belong to turn out to be redundant and are subject to extermination - apoptosis.
Malignancy of cancer cells, that is their ability to leave the normal tissue and to spread across the body, is akin to searching migration. However, such migration is considered by the researchers as a pathologic one. Pathologic migration differs radically from the normal one by the fact that it possesses only the first part - wandering- but the choice is absent. Apparently, this pathology occurred as a result of genetic abnormalities in the normal search mechanisms. Malignant cells are constantly wandering in the surrounding tissue, but they do not stop and do not start differentiation. Within the tumors per se, cell displacements are spontaneous and confused. At face value, the cells that did not find their place are subject to destruction, but cancer cells are deprived of the ability for apoptosis, therefore, they survive and reproduce. If the carcinogenesis process has already gone far, cancer cells can leave their native tumor, “wander” rather far from it and form metastases. At earlier stages of carcinogenesis, the cells still preserve some ability for choice, but they pass on to it under the influence of some other factors. Even in the non-malignant tumors, some part of cells is always in the state of search: it reproduces and migrates.
The researchers emphasize that a cancer cell can be called an eternal finder only as a very rough approximation, and all details of the hypothesis suggested by them require experimental validation.
Nadezda Markina | alfa
Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute
Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy