Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Researchers identify gene associated with severe kidney failure in diabetes

A research team at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center and the University of Heidelberg has proven that a gene protects some people with diabetes from developing severe kidney failure or "end-stage renal disease."

Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, an illness that requires either kidney dialysis treatments or a kidney transplant for survival.

The carnosinase 1 gene, located on human chromosome 18, produces the protective factor, said Barry I. Freedman, M.D., the John H. Felts III Professor and head of the Section on Nephrology, in an article in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation published online.

"This is a major gene that appears to be associated with development of severe diabetic kidney disease," he said.

The research team evaluated 858 subjects, including diabetic patients with end-stage kidney failure on dialysis, diabetic patients with normal kidney function, and healthy non-diabetic individuals. They confirmed that a protective form of the carnosinase 1 gene was present in greater frequency among both healthy individuals and diabetic subjects without kidney disease, compared to the diabetic patients on dialysis who more commonly had forms of the gene that were not protective.

This discovery may lead to novel treatment strategies in susceptible diabetic patients to protect them from kidney failure and may provide a marker to determine which diabetic patients are at increased risk for future kidney disease, Freedman said.

The carnosinase 1 gene produces an enzyme called carnosinase. Carnosinase inactivates the protective substance carnosine. Carnosine appears to prevent scarring from developing in kidney tissue and serves as a scavenger of damaging oxygen-free radicals.

"Prior to these genetic analyses, kidney doctors were unaware that this pathway played an important role in diabetic kidney disease," Freedman said.

He added that the groups at Wake Forest and in Germany had been looking for the gene or genes after concluding that a region on chromosome 18 was important in predisposing people who have type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes) to the development of severe kidney failure. Freedman said the actions of this gene apply to Europeans, American whites and Arabs.

When his group repeated the analysis in black Americans, there was no evidence that the carnosinase pathway was involved in their kidney failure.

"It is possible that American blacks have different carnosine metabolism, making them less susceptible to alterations in carnosinase gene activity. Analyses are currently under way," said Freedman. "It is also possible that an additional gene or genes on chromosome 18 is associated with susceptibility to end-stage kidney disease in black Americans, and our group is actively trying to identify them."

Freedman said that among people who are susceptible to kidney failure, "it will be important to evaluate whether the administration of carnosine or agents that inhibit carnosinase activity will protect diabetic individuals from the development of progressive kidney disease."

He said that while carnosine is available over the counter in health food stores, it is possible that excessive carnosinase enzyme activity could prevent carnosine supplementation from protecting the kidney. As such, carnosinase blockers may prove to be more important.

Freedman noted that Wake Forest researchers "have one of the largest existing collections of DNA samples from black and white families with multiple members having end-stage kidney disease. We have been evaluating these families since 1991."

Karen Richardson | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht First time-lapse footage of cell activity during limb regeneration
25.10.2016 | eLife

nachricht Phenotype at the push of a button
25.10.2016 | Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Etching Microstructures with Lasers

Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.

This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

3-D-printed structures shrink when heated

26.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

Indian roadside refuse fires produce toxic rainbow

26.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

First results of NSTX-U research operations

26.10.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

More VideoLinks >>>