Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

LIAI completes world's most comprehensive analysis on influenza virus data

05.01.2007
Study will help international scientific community combat seasonal and avian flu strains

Researchers from the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology (LIAI) announced today the results of a first of its kind study analyzing all published data worldwide on influenza A virus antibody and T cell epitopes.

Antibody and T cell epitopes are small sites on a virus that are the targets of the immune response, and they are critical for developing therapies and vaccines to combat infectious disease. The study, using information from a worldwide research database funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), provides an important tool for scientists seeking to develop vaccines and therapies against both seasonal and pandemic influenza strains, including the deadly H5N1 avian flu.

"This study shows what is currently known about influenza A virus epitopes -- what are the areas that are well covered in the current research and where are the holes in our knowledge," said Alessandro Sette, Ph.D., director of LIAI's Center for Infectious Disease and one of the study's authors. "From this information, the scientific community can determine areas where focus is needed going forward."

... more about:
»Antibody »Database »Epitope »H5N1 »LIAI »Wilson »avian »avian flu

The findings are being published online this week in a paper, "Antibody and T Cell Epitopes of Influenza A Virus – Knowledge and Opportunities" in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. LIAI researcher Huynh-Hoa Bui, Ph.D., was lead author on the paper.

The study looked at all scientific data on influenza A virus antibody and T cell epitopes published to date worldwide, drawing from the NIAID's Immune Epitope Database, a new worldwide scientific resource that went public last summer. LIAI researchers developed the database – which is the world's largest repository of scientific data on how the body's immune system responds to infectious agents -- under a $25 million contract awarded by the NIAID in 2004.

The database places particular emphasis on emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus, along with those diseases considered potential bioterrorist threats. The database's influenza research was analyzed first due to the continuing problem of seasonal influenza and public health concerns over the possible spread of the H5N1 avian flu.

"The database marks the first time that all known antibody and T cell epitope information has been compiled in one place," said Sette, noting the searchable online database is freely available to scientists around the globe. "It gives researchers ways of sharing knowledge and information never available before. Previously, everyone did their own study, but would have no way of knowing if a particular epitope had been used one time, for example by a single individual responding to a single virus, or 100 different times. Now, scientists can search the database and find out all existing information on their particular topic. This will enable them to avoid unnecessary repetition and make faster progress toward new therapies and vaccines."

The database, publicly accessible at http://immuneEPITOPE.org, includes information culled from more than 100,000 separate research articles published over several decades, with the influenza information representing only a portion of the massive data set. "The influenza data shows that people have done a lot of work that gives important information as to how we respond to influenza virus," said Stephen Wilson, Ph.D., LIAI chief technology officer and project director of the database. "It also highlights those critical areas where we need to look further. The fact that we don't have a comprehensive vaccine for flu shows we have more work to do. This study shows us where we need to focus going forward."

For the influenza study, LIAI researchers analyzed information from 58 different influenza A virus strains, involving 600 different antibody and T cell epitopes. In particular, the LIAI scientists identified epitopes that were similar in many influenza strains. "This is important because the influenza virus continually changes requiring scientists to develop a new vaccine every year," Sette said. "If we can find shared epitopes, it may be possible to develop an influenza vaccine with greater cross protection for many different viruses." Sette said the study found hundreds of similar epitopes among the different virus strains. However, it remains to be seen whether these epitopes are similar enough to enable the successful development of a highly cross reactive influenza vaccine that would protect against many viruses. And, in fact, the study found only one epitope that has been published, which appears to be an ideal candidate for creating a multi-strain influenza vaccine.

Regarding gaps in knowledge of the way people respond to influenza, Wilson said two significant points emerged. "One concern is that most of the current influenza research is based on strains maintained in the lab, rather than wild influenza strains. Since we know the virus mutates, research needs to be done using influenza strains currently circulating in the population, so-called 'wild' strains, rather than using strains propagated in the lab. "

Secondly, Wilson noted that the analysis showed that most of the detailed studies were done in animal models, primarily mice, with very little data coming from studies with humans or birds. Only one of the antibody epitopes came from a human. "This is understandable given the ethical and health issues of testing a potential pathogen in humans," Wilson said. "However, based on this information, I think the research community will pursue data directly relevant to human immunity to influenza virus to close those critical gaps."

Regarding the dreaded H5N1 avian flu specifically, the information showed some important H5N1 epitopes currently being investigated. However, the number represented only a few of the 600 influenza virus epitopes in the database. "Given the concerns among the worldwide health community about this virus, I think this data gives timely assistance to much needed research in this area," Wilson said. He noted that such information is extremely valuable and shows how important the database can be for all researchers in determining their future research plans. "This study focused on influenza because it is a major illness that kills 36,000 Americans each year and global concerns over the possible spread of the H5N1 avian flu. In the future, database information on other infectious diseases can also be analyzed and used to good effect."

Bonnie Ward | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.liai.org

Further reports about: Antibody Database Epitope H5N1 LIAI Wilson avian avian flu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
18.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>