The research, reported in the December 15, 2006 issue of the journal Science, describes the elements of the "internal compass" that neutrophils use to detect and migrate towards chemoattractants, markers of infection and inflammation that are released from bacteria and inflamed tissues.
"These findings solve the long-standing puzzle of how neutrophils find their way and move toward sites of injury or infection in the body," said senior author Wolfgang Junger, Ph.D., adjunct professor of surgery at UCSD Medical Center.
His team set out to identify the key mechanisms of signal amplification that must occur in order for neutrophils to detect the low-level activating signals (chemoattractants) sent out by bacteria at injury sites. They found that neutrophils possess a built-in amplification system that is an integral part of the internal compass the cells use to locate the source of chemoattractants. At the core of the amplification system is the chemical adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The chain of events necessary to direct the neutrophils toward its goal begins when ATP is released from the region of the cell surface closest to the source of chemoattractants. Next, ATP binds to a nucleotide receptor called P2Y2 on the cell surface, a step critical to position the cells in the direction of the source of chemoattractants.
Once this internal compass has been activated, ATP is converted by the cells to adenosine, which in turn activates A3 adenosine receptors concentrated at the front of cells, providing the signal to move toward the source of chemoattractants.
Lead authors Yu Chen, M.D., UCSD postgraduate researcher in surgery and Ross Corriden, UCSD graduate student in biomedical sciences, found that when ATP receptors were blocked, the cells became disoriented, while blocking A3 adenosine receptors slowed down the cell movement toward chemoattractants. The researchers also found that drugs which interfere with the amplification system impair cell migration to inflamed tissues.
"These findings are very important because they suggest that novel classes of anti-inflammatory drugs could be developed to prevent rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, asthma, and many other chronic inflammatory diseases," said Junger.
Conversely, drugs that boost these amplification systems and the internal compass could be used to coax neutrophils to migrate to infected wounds to improve wound healing.
Debra Kain | EurekAlert!
Cancer diagnosis: no more needles?
25.05.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found
25.05.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI)
The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.
Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...
A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.
The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...
At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.
At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...
There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?
At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
25.05.2018 | Event News
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering
25.05.2018 | Life Sciences