Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

DNA downloads alone

05.02.2002


Two million years ago life looked like this. Four billion years ago it was a different story.
© SPL


The information in DNA can be copied into new molecules without proteins’ help.

Chemists have reproduced the basic process of information transfer central to all life without the catalysts that facilitate it in living cells1.

They show that DNA alone can pass its message on to subsequent generations. Many researchers believe that DNA-like molecules acted thus to get life started about four billion years ago - before catalytic proteins existed to help DNA to replicate.



The experiment, carried out by David Lynn and co-workers at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, might create a new basis for the precise synthesis of useful polymer materials. It may even hasten the advent of synthetic biology: the creation of life from scratch.

History repeats itself

Synthetic self-replicating molecules have been made in the lab at least three times before. But in all these cases the replicating molecules were given a substantial helping hand.

Before, each molecule acted as a template on which its copy was constructed from two ready-made halves. In other words most of the information in the copy was present already in the fragments from which it was made. It was rather like reproducing the information in this sentence simply by pasting it together from two already-written halves.

In contrast, Lynn and colleagues paste each letter in place, one by one. They make, not a copy, but a complementary molecule, containing the same information but in a different code. It is rather like making a copy of one of these sentences but translated into French.

In the cell, DNA itself contains two such complementary molecules, each one a chain of molecular units, stuck together in the double helix. When DNA replicates before a cell divides, these complementary strands part and each acts as a template to guide the synthesis of a fresh strand.

Each DNA strand contains all the information needed to make a new strand. There are four different kinds of molecular unit, and the sequence of these along the strand determines the sequence of units assembled in the new strand. Enzymes drive this assembly process.

Stranded

Lynn’s group has found a way to do without the enzymes, so that a single strand of DNA can act as a template for the assembly of its complementary strand. Scientists have achieved this before, but imperfectly: only one of the four types of DNA unit acted as a template, and the complementary strand wasn’t always the same length as the template.

The Emory group uses a new trick to join the components together on a DNA template. The chemical links between successive units in the new strand aren’t like those in DNA itself. Instead they are amide linkages, like those that unite proteins’ molecular units, which are also chain-like molecules laden with information. This makes the assembly of the new strand more accurate.

Amide-linked DNA chains can help units of true DNA to join together. So the researchers hope to achieve the reverse process of templating DNA using amide-linked DNA. This might then enable the two kinds of molecule to support their mutual replication, allowing the possibility of molecular evolution and the appearance of life-like complexity.

References

  1. Li, X., Zhan, Z.-Y. J., Knipe, R. & Lynn, D. G. DNA-catalyzed polymerization. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 124, 746 - 747, (2002).


PHILIP BALL | © Nature News Service
Further information:
http://www.nature.com/nsu/020204/020204-2.html

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds
26.05.2017 | Cornell University

nachricht How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system
26.05.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>