Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists uncover speedometer for crystal growth controlled by biomolecule properties

05.12.2006
The facets of fast

From gemstones to transistors, crystals are everywhere in our daily lives. Crystals also make up the mineralized skeletons of all organisms, including seashells and our own teeth and bones. Perhaps the most widely used biominerals are found in the calcium carbonate family. Understanding how this mineral forms is of particular interest because of its widespread occurrence over geologic history and its close relation to the calcium phosphate found in the bones and teeth of all mammals.

One ongoing question is how organisms form these mineralized structures, or biominerals, at a controlled rate, sometimes very rapidly until attaining the prescribed size. For reasons not well understood, this process can also go astray, leading to underdevelopment or unwanted growth such as kidney stones. The speed of mineral formation in both normal and pathological development can sometimes be surprisingly fast. For example, phytoplankton, whose occurrence is so extensive that they are believed to have important controls on earth climate, form fully developed and exquisitely shaped skeletons within a few hours.

In the December 4-8, 2006, online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Virginia Tech Postdoctoral Scientist Selim Elhadj and Professor Patricia Dove report that the chemistry of organic molecules control the rate of crystal growth. In collaboration with James De Yoreo at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and John Hoyer of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, they learned that nano-quantities of biomolecules frequently found in the tissues of organisms where biominerals develop can cause calcite crystals to grow faster. More importantly, they determined that the speed of growth can be tuned by varying the charge and water-structuring ability of the biomolecules. By finding a relationship between the control of electrical charge and hydrophilicity, respectively, the findings result in a speedometer that predicts the type of molecules that will speed up (or not) crystal growth.

... more about:
»Mineral »biominerals »biomolecule

The new insights predict the growth enhancing abilities of amino acids, peptide chains and also explain recent reports of very large growth enhancing effects by natural proteins extracted from the shells of abalone.

Their findings add to intrigue of how proteins and other biomolecules rearrange local water to affect many different aspects of biological systems. To now show that this restructuring also influences the growth of crystals adds new momentum to this research area.

In addition to better understanding how organisms can form biominerals with sophisticated shapes, insights to the roles of biology in crystal formation will improve efforts to interpret ancient environments and climate conditions from some fossils. It could also provide new knowledge for inventing materials that can someday approach the same level of complexity in shape and function as Nature has perfected over millions of years with shells, teeth and bones.

Selim Elhadj received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Virginia Tech in 2001 and Patricia Dove of Blacksburg, professor of geosciences, is a 1980 and 1984 graduate of Virginia Tech who returned to the university after seven years as a professor of geochemistry at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The paper, “Role of Molecular Charge and Hydrophilicity in Regulating the Kinetics of Crystal Growth,” appears in the online issue ahead of publication in PNAS.

Dove and her research group study the interface between minerals, waters, and biomolecules in biomineralization, cementation, chemical weathering, paleoproxy models, metal and biomolecule binding. Located in the Department of Geosciences, they investigate these processes and the underlying reaction mechanisms through direct, nanoscale observations of mineral-water interactions during growth, dissolution, and nucleation with quantitative measurements of kinetics and surface thermodynamic properties. Most projects involve amorphous and crystalline forms of silica and the carbonate polymorphs.

Susan Trulove | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.geochem.geos.vt.edu/bgep/
http://www.vt.edu

Further reports about: Mineral biominerals biomolecule

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cryo-electron microscopy achieves unprecedented resolution using new computational methods
24.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

nachricht How cheetahs stay fit and healthy
24.03.2017 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>