Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Scientists uncover speedometer for crystal growth controlled by biomolecule properties

The facets of fast

From gemstones to transistors, crystals are everywhere in our daily lives. Crystals also make up the mineralized skeletons of all organisms, including seashells and our own teeth and bones. Perhaps the most widely used biominerals are found in the calcium carbonate family. Understanding how this mineral forms is of particular interest because of its widespread occurrence over geologic history and its close relation to the calcium phosphate found in the bones and teeth of all mammals.

One ongoing question is how organisms form these mineralized structures, or biominerals, at a controlled rate, sometimes very rapidly until attaining the prescribed size. For reasons not well understood, this process can also go astray, leading to underdevelopment or unwanted growth such as kidney stones. The speed of mineral formation in both normal and pathological development can sometimes be surprisingly fast. For example, phytoplankton, whose occurrence is so extensive that they are believed to have important controls on earth climate, form fully developed and exquisitely shaped skeletons within a few hours.

In the December 4-8, 2006, online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Virginia Tech Postdoctoral Scientist Selim Elhadj and Professor Patricia Dove report that the chemistry of organic molecules control the rate of crystal growth. In collaboration with James De Yoreo at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and John Hoyer of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, they learned that nano-quantities of biomolecules frequently found in the tissues of organisms where biominerals develop can cause calcite crystals to grow faster. More importantly, they determined that the speed of growth can be tuned by varying the charge and water-structuring ability of the biomolecules. By finding a relationship between the control of electrical charge and hydrophilicity, respectively, the findings result in a speedometer that predicts the type of molecules that will speed up (or not) crystal growth.

... more about:
»Mineral »biominerals »biomolecule

The new insights predict the growth enhancing abilities of amino acids, peptide chains and also explain recent reports of very large growth enhancing effects by natural proteins extracted from the shells of abalone.

Their findings add to intrigue of how proteins and other biomolecules rearrange local water to affect many different aspects of biological systems. To now show that this restructuring also influences the growth of crystals adds new momentum to this research area.

In addition to better understanding how organisms can form biominerals with sophisticated shapes, insights to the roles of biology in crystal formation will improve efforts to interpret ancient environments and climate conditions from some fossils. It could also provide new knowledge for inventing materials that can someday approach the same level of complexity in shape and function as Nature has perfected over millions of years with shells, teeth and bones.

Selim Elhadj received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Virginia Tech in 2001 and Patricia Dove of Blacksburg, professor of geosciences, is a 1980 and 1984 graduate of Virginia Tech who returned to the university after seven years as a professor of geochemistry at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The paper, “Role of Molecular Charge and Hydrophilicity in Regulating the Kinetics of Crystal Growth,” appears in the online issue ahead of publication in PNAS.

Dove and her research group study the interface between minerals, waters, and biomolecules in biomineralization, cementation, chemical weathering, paleoproxy models, metal and biomolecule binding. Located in the Department of Geosciences, they investigate these processes and the underlying reaction mechanisms through direct, nanoscale observations of mineral-water interactions during growth, dissolution, and nucleation with quantitative measurements of kinetics and surface thermodynamic properties. Most projects involve amorphous and crystalline forms of silica and the carbonate polymorphs.

Susan Trulove | EurekAlert!
Further information:

Further reports about: Mineral biominerals biomolecule

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht First time-lapse footage of cell activity during limb regeneration
25.10.2016 | eLife

nachricht Phenotype at the push of a button
25.10.2016 | Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Etching Microstructures with Lasers

Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.

This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Ice shelf vibrations cause unusual waves in Antarctic atmosphere

25.10.2016 | Earth Sciences

Fluorescent holography: Upending the world of biological imaging

25.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Etching Microstructures with Lasers

25.10.2016 | Process Engineering

More VideoLinks >>>