Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Newly Discovered Immune Defense May Be Impaired In CF Airways

04.12.2006
A recent University of Iowa study reveals a new immune defense mechanism in normal airways and may help explain why people with cystic fibrosis (CF) are particularly susceptible to bacterial lung infections. The findings also may point the way to new approaches for treating the disease.

The UI study shows how two enzymes generate and use reactive oxygen species (ROS) to destroy bacteria in normal airways. The team also found that this process is defective in airway tissue and cells containing the CF gene mutation. The study is published in the Nov. 2 online issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

"Among the host defense systems that we know of in the airway, at least in cell culture and tissue explants, this is one of the most efficient antibacterial system we have identified," said Botond Banfi, M.D., Ph.D., UI assistant professor of anatomy and cell biology and senior study author. "The findings suggest that one reason for CF patients' weakened innate immunity might be the absence of this natural oxidative host defense mechanism."

Banfi added that correcting the problem by reconstituting the oxidative system might represent a totally new approach for preventing the onset of bacterial lung infections that often become chronic and eventually fatal in CF patients.

... more about:
»Banfi »Oxidative »infections »thiocyanate

Working with airway cells and tissues from rats, cows and humans, the UI team uncovered the oxidative system, which produces hypothiocyanite -- a highly effective antibacterial compound. Banfi and his colleagues, including Patryk Moskwa, M.D., Ph.D., a UI postdoctoral fellow and first author of the study, showed that one airway enzyme (Duox) makes hydrogen peroxide and a second enzyme (lactoperoxidase) uses the hydrogen peroxide to convert a small molecule called thiocyanate into the bacteria-killing hypothiocyanite.

The UI researchers also showed that the critical thiocyanate cannot be transported across airway cells with the CF mutation, which means that hypothiocyanite is not produced. In other words, without thiocyanate the oxidative antibacterial system breaks down.

These results suggest that thiocyanate may not be present in the airway surface liquid of individuals with CF. Banfi and his colleagues intend to test that hypothesis by comparing thiocyanate levels in airway surface liquid from CF patients and from healthy individuals.

Thiocyanate is naturally present in body fluids like blood and saliva. Despite its name and its chemical relationship to cyanide, thiocyanate is not toxic. Hypothiocyanite is also harmless to human cells and tissues, but the UI team found that it is extremely efficient at killing bacteria including those most commonly associated with fatal lung infections in CF patients - Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

"If we could reconstitute thiocyanate concentrations in the airway surface liquid, perhaps using a nebulizer, it might boost host defenses in CF patients and help prevent bacterial lung infections," Banfi said.

In addition to Banfi and Moskwa, the UI team included graduate student, Daniel Lorentzen; Katherine Excoffon, Ph.D., associate research scientist; Joseph Zabner, M.D., professor of internal medicine; Paul McCray, M.D., the Roy J. Carver Chair in Pulmonary Research and professor of pediatrics; and William Nauseef, M.D., professor of internal medicine. Corinne Dupuy at INSERM in Paris, France also was part of the research team.

The study was funded in part by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

Jennifer Brown | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uiowa.edu

Further reports about: Banfi Oxidative infections thiocyanate

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Clock stars: Astrocytes keep time for brain, behavior
27.03.2017 | Washington University in St. Louis

nachricht Cryo-electron microscopy achieves unprecedented resolution using new computational methods
24.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrical 'switch' in brain's capillary network monitors activity and controls blood flow

27.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

Clock stars: Astrocytes keep time for brain, behavior

27.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Sun's impact on climate change quantified for first time

27.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>