Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Protein shown to rally biological clock

01.12.2006
'Pony Express' protein

A biologist at Washington University in St. Louis and his collaborators have identified the factor in mammalian brain cells that keeps cells in synchrony so that functions like the wake-sleep cycle, hormone secretion and loco motor behaviors are coordinated daily over a 24-hour period.

Erik Herzog, Ph.D., Washington University associate professor of Biology in Arts & Sciences, Sara Aton, Ph.D., a graduate student in Herzog’s lab who is now a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Pennsylvania, James Huettner, Ph.D., associate professor in cell biology and physiology at the Washington

University School of Medicine, and Martin Straume, a biostatistician, have determined that VIP ¬– vasoactive intestinal polypeptide – is the rallying protein that signals the brain’s biological clock to coordinate daily rhythms in behavior and physiology.

... more about:
»GABA »Neuron »SCN »VIP

The finding clarifies the roles that both VIP and a neurotransmitter GABA play in synchronizing biological clocks, and sheds light on how mammals, in this case mice and rats. regulate circadian rhythm. Results were published in the Nov. 27- Dec. 1 online issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Neurons in the biological clock, an area called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located at the base of the brain right across the optic nerve, keep 24-hour time and are normally highly synchronized. The SCN is composed of 10,000 neurons on one side of the hypothalamus, and 10,000 on the other. Together these neurons are intrinsic clocks in communication with each other to keep 24-hour time.

It had been thought that GABA was the prime candidate for the rallying role. All SCN neurons make this inhibitory neurotransmitter, and it had been shown that giving GABA daily at 8 a.m. to SCN cells synchronizes them.

“The surprise was that GABA was not needed,” said Herzog. “VIP synchronizes even when we block all GABA signaling. When we blocked GABA, synchrony was perfectly fine. Instead, the oscillations got bigger.”

Herzog likens VIP to the Pony Express rider telling all the SCN cells to synchronize their ; GABA, he says, is like the marshal that prevents he cells from being too active.

Herzog and Aton recorded neuron activity from the SCN using a multielectrode array with 60 electrodes upon which they place SCN cells, a “clock in a dish.” They also recorded gene expression in real-time using a bioluminescent reporter of gene activity.

Using drugs or genetic knock out mice, they negated the role of GABA and recorded the electrical activity of many neurons, what Herzog calls the “hands of the clock,” and the gene activities, “the cogs of the clock,” of many SCN cells.

They found that, without GABA, the cells marched together, but without VIP, they lost synchrony, indicating that VIP is the coordinator.

Tony Fitzpatrick | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wustl.edu

Further reports about: GABA Neuron SCN VIP

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Pathogenic bacteria hitchhiking to North and Baltic Seas?
22.07.2016 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

nachricht Unconventional quasiparticles predicted in conventional crystals
22.07.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Mapping electromagnetic waveforms

Munich Physicists have developed a novel electron microscope that can visualize electromagnetic fields oscillating at frequencies of billions of cycles per second.

Temporally varying electromagnetic fields are the driving force behind the whole of electronics. Their polarities can change at mind-bogglingly fast rates, and...

Im Focus: Continental tug-of-war - until the rope snaps

Breakup of continents with two speed: Continents initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture. The final speed can be up to 20 times faster than in the first, slow extension phase.phases

Present-day continents were shaped hundreds of millions of years ago as the supercontinent Pangaea broke apart. Derived from Pangaea’s main fragments Gondwana...

Im Focus: A Peek into the “Birthing Room” of Ribosomes

Scaffolding and specialised workers help with the delivery – Heidelberg biochemists gain new insights into biogenesis

A type of scaffolding on which specialised workers ply their trade helps in the manufacturing process of the two subunits from which the ribosome – the protein...

Im Focus: New protocol enables analysis of metabolic products from fixed tissues

Scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München have developed a new mass spectrometry imaging method which, for the first time, makes it possible to analyze hundreds of metabolites in fixed tissue samples. Their findings, published in the journal Nature Protocols, explain the new access to metabolic information, which will offer previously unexploited potential for tissue-based research and molecular diagnostics.

In biomedical research, working with tissue samples is indispensable because it permits insights into the biological reality of patients, for example, in...

Im Focus: Computer Simulation Renders Transient Chemical Structures Visible

Chemists at the University of Basel have succeeded in using computer simulations to elucidate transient structures in proteins. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, the researchers set out how computer simulations of details at the atomic level can be used to understand proteins’ modes of action.

Using computational chemistry, it is possible to characterize the motion of individual atoms of a molecule. Today, the latest simulation techniques allow...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

GROWING IN CITIES - Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Urban Gardening

15.07.2016 | Event News

SIGGRAPH2016 Computer Graphics Interactive Techniques, 24-28 July, Anaheim, California

15.07.2016 | Event News

Partner countries of FAIR accelerator meet in Darmstadt and approve developments

11.07.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Hey robot, shimmy like a centipede

22.07.2016 | Information Technology

New record in materials research: 1 terapascals in a laboratory

22.07.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

University of Graz researchers challenge 140-year-old paradigm of lichen symbiosis

22.07.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>