Key to acute lung injury lies in Ang2 protein
Acute lung injury caused by cell death, high and potentially toxic concentrations of oxygen (hyperoxia), and the resulting excess fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), may be controlled by modulating levels of the angiopoietin2 (Ang2) protein, researchers at Yale School of Medicine report in the November 5 online issue of Nature Medicine.
The study, which was completed in the laboratory of senior author Jack Elias, M.D., the Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor and chair of internal medicine at Yale, looked at the response to hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), first in mice and then in human adults and babies. The team found that mice in which the Ang2 gene was genetically eliminated or silenced lived longer and had evidence of decreased lung injury compared to mice in which the gene and protein were intact.
Levels of the Ang2 protein were then measured in the blood and lung fluid of adult patients and babies with acute lung damage and pulmonary edema. The team found that levels of Ang2, which is known to increase leaks in blood vessels and causes the death of endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, were higher in adult patients with acute lung injury and in babies born with respiratory distress syndrome who either went on to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia or died.
"Mice without Ang2 seemed to be protected against hyperoxia," said first author Vineet Bhandari, M.D., assistant professor of pediatrics at Yale School of Medicine. "This protein seems to be a mediator of cell death in the settings of high oxygen concentrations in the lung causing acute lung injury and pulmonary edema."
Bhandari said the study is an example of true bench-to-bedside translational research. "All the work was initially done on mice in which we found that the Ang2 protein was involved in HALI," said Bhandari. "We also defined how the protein creates lung injury and then we showed its clinical relevance by documenting its presence in human patients with acute lung injury."
In addition to acute lung injury and pulmonary edema, Bhandari said, an increase in Ang2 and cell death can be seen in other disorders such as heart attacks, stroke, eye disease in diabetics and brain tumors.
Karen N. Peart | EurekAlert!
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
New technique promises tunable laser devices
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...