Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Comparing Chimp and Human DNA

13.10.2006
Scientists look to the chimpanzee genome to better understand what is uniquely human about our own. One goal is to find DNA elements that show evidence of rapid evolution in the human lineage.

In a new study, published online in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics, Katherine Pollard, at the UC Davis Genome Center, and colleagues at UC Santa Cruz led by David Haussler used comparative genomics to investigate the properties of a set of 202 carefully screened “highly accelerated regions” (HARs).

The authors searched for stretches of DNA that were highly conserved between chimpanzees, mice, and rats, comparing those sequences to the human genome sequence in order to unravel the evolutionary forces at work behind the human genome’s fastest evolving regions.

Pollard explains that “most of the differences between chimps and humans are not in our proteins, but in how we use them.” Only three HARs lie in genes that are likely to encode proteins. The rest do not appear to code for genes at all; instead, many HARs are located close to genes involved in growth and development. The most dramatically accelerated region, HAR1, appears to make a piece of RNA that may have a function in brain development.

... more about:
»DNA »HARs »genes

“They’re not in genes, but they’re near genes that do some very important stuff,” Pollard said. Typically, non-coding regions of DNA evolve more rapidly than regions carrying genes because there is no selective pressure to stop mutations from accumulating. However, the human-accelerated regions are highly conserved across the other groups of animals that the researchers examined, suggesting that they have important functions that stop them from varying too much.

This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Katherine Pollard | alfa
Further information:
http://www.plosgenetics.org
http://www.ucdavis.edu

Further reports about: DNA HARs genes

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Complementing conventional antibiotics
24.05.2018 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

nachricht Building a brain, cell by cell: Researchers make a mini neuron network (of two)
23.05.2018 | Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

When corals eat plastics

24.05.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Surgery involving ultrasound energy found to treat high blood pressure

24.05.2018 | Medical Engineering

First chip-scale broadband optical system that can sense molecules in the mid-IR

24.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>