In a study published today in the open access journal Respiratory Research (http://respiratory-research.com/), researchers have created antibodies against the avian flu virus H5N1 that work in mice both as a preventive drug, or prophylaxis, when administered before infection, and as a treatment for bird flu. These antibodies are part human, part mouse antibodies and would be less likely to be rejected by the human immune system than pure mouse antibodies.
Brendon Hanson and colleagues from the DSO National Laboratories in Singapore, in collaboration with Richard Webby and colleagues from St Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, USA created two different antibodies able to recognise slightly different types of H5N1 viruses. The antibodies were ‘humanised’ mouse antibodies – they comprised both human and mouse antibody fragments. The antibodies were injected into mice 24 hours before the mice received a potentially lethal dose of H5N1. Other groups of mice were injected with the antibodies one day or three days after receiving the lethal dose of H5N1.
Hanson et al.’s results show that prophylactic use of a low dose (1mg/kg) of the first antibody completely protects the mice from disease and death caused by H5N1. Higher doses are necessary to completely protect the mice from disease and death when administered one (5mg/kg) or three (10mg/kg) days after infection. The second antibody is less effective and only protects the mice from disease when given at a high dose (5mg/kg) 24 hours before infection.
Nerves control the body’s bacterial community
26.09.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Ageless ears? Elderly barn owls do not become hard of hearing
26.09.2017 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg
Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
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