Naltrexone and acamprosate are drugs that are supposed to suppress the desire for a drink. The researcher investigated which patient characteristics were responsible for predicting the drug that would work best.
Alcoholics have an overwhelming urge to drink. That desire not only facilitates alcohol addiction but also ensures that the habit is difficult to kick. There are two drugs that can suppress this longing for alcohol: naltrexone works via the reward system in the brain and acamprosate via the stress system. However, they do not work for everybody. The question was whether patient characteristics can predict which drug works best for which patient.
One hundred and fifty-six alcoholics were willing to participate in Ootemans' study. The participants’ desire to drink was aroused by, for example, placing a glass of their favourite drink on the table. Meanwhile they were posed questions about their urge for a drink and their physical reactions were measured, such as heart rate and sweat production. Genetic characteristics were also determined. After a month of treatment with naltrexone, acamprosate or a placebo the effect of clinical, physiological or genetic differences on the success of the treatment was examined.
Clinical patient characteristics were found to be a poor predictor of whether someone would respond best to acamprosate or naltrexone. Biological and genetic characteristics could, however, predict this. People who started to sweat profusely during the experiment, responded better to acamprosate, whereas people who sweated less profusely responded better to naltrexone. Further genes which code for certain receptors in the brain predicted which drug would be successful for a patient. In particular, the genes that code for the mu-opioid receptor, the dopamine D2 receptor and a gaba receptor were found to be good predictors. This might be because these genes are closely associated with the causes of addiction.
The question is whether these same results will be found if longer term relapse is examined. It is expected that in particular the highly-promising genetic characteristics will be used for a more effective allocation of alcoholics to different treatments.
Kim van den Wijngaard | alfa
Flow of cerebrospinal fluid regulates neural stem cell division
21.05.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Chemists at FAU successfully demonstrate imine hydrogenation with inexpensive main group metal
21.05.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...
A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.
The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...
Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.
Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...
A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.05.2018 | Information Technology
18.05.2018 | Information Technology