Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study shows enzyme builds neurotransmitters via newly discovered pathway

13.09.2006
Findings could mean more selective treatment options for metabolic, central nervous system disorders

The study, which was directed by Scripps Research Professor Benjamin Cravatt, Ph.D., is being published in the September 8 issue of The Journal of Biological Chemistry.

The new study describes a pathway-different than the one previously suggested-for the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter lipids, N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), which include the endogenous cannabinoid ("endocannabinoid") anandamide. The high activity of the enzyme a/b hydrolase4 (Abh4) in areas such as the central nervous system suggests that the pathway makes a "potentially major contribution" to endocannabinoid signaling.

Endocannabinoids are naturally produced substances similar to the active ingredient D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana. Cannabinoid receptors were first discovered in 1988; the first endocannabinoid, anandamide, which shares some of the pharmacologic properties of THC, was identified in 1992.

Other research has shown that the endogenous cannabinoid system helps control food intake, among other critical processes, by acting on cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system. The system drives consumption of fat and calorie-rich foods and the amount of fat stored or expended and plays a significant role in energy homeostasis.

"At least one cannabinoid receptor antagonist is on the verge of approval for the treatment of obesity-metabolic disorders," said Cravatt. "Enzymes involved in endocannabinoid biosynthesis, such as the one highlighted in our study, can be viewed as complementary drug targets. One potential advantage of this approach is that it may prove more selective than a receptor antagonist. By inhibiting enzymes such as Abh4, we may be able to disrupt the activity of a single class of endocannabinoids, rather than all of them."

In the new study, the researchers provide biochemical evidence of an alternative pathway for NAE biosynthesis in vivo and demonstrate that these new routes are especially important for the creation of a number of NAEs, including anandamide. The researchers also isolated and identified the enzyme Abh4 by combining traditional protein purification and functional proteomic technologies, concluding that Abh4 "displayed multiple properties" that would be expected of an enzyme involved in NAE biosynthesis.

However, the authors of the study noted, the unique contribution that this Abh4-mediated route makes to the production of NAEs in vivo is yet to be determined and will require "the generation of genetic or pharmacological tools that selectively [interrupt] this pathway."

"The continued pursuit of additional enzymes involved in NAE biosynthesis should further enrich our understanding of the complex metabolic network that supports the endocannabinoid/NAE system in vivo," Cravatt said. "From a therapeutic perspective, any of these enzymes could represent an attractive drug target for a range of human disorders in which disruption of endocannabinoid signaling by cannabinoid receptor antagonists has proven beneficial."

Keith McKeown | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.scripps.edu

Further reports about: Abh4 Cannabinoid Endocannabinoid biosynthesis enzyme receptor

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel socio-ecological approach helps identifying suitable wolf habitats
17.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

nachricht New, ultra-flexible probes form reliable, scar-free integration with the brain
16.02.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biocompatible 3-D tracking system has potential to improve robot-assisted surgery

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Real-time MRI analysis powered by supercomputers

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections

17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>