Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Proteins necessary for brain development found to be critical for long-term memory

Importance of growth factors in memory formation could aid development of strategies against cognitive decline

A type of protein crucial for the growth of brain cells during development appears to be equally important for the formation of long-term memories, according to researchers at UC Irvine. The findings could lead to a better understanding of, and treatments for, cognitive decline associated with normal aging and diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

The findings appear in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“This study presents strong evidence that a molecular process fundamental during development is retained in the adult and recycled in the service of memory formation,” said Thomas J. Carew, Donald Bren Professor and chair of UCI’s Department of Neurobiology and Behavior. “It is a striking example of how molecular rules employed in building a brain are often reused for different purposes throughout a lifetime.”

... more about:
»Carew »UCI »receptor

The researchers have shown that proteins known as growth factors are as essential for the induction of long-term memory as they are for the development of the central nervous system. These growth factors, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), bind onto the brain cell through a specific type of receptor known as TrkB, much the same way a key fits into a lock. As an experimental strategy to determine the importance of BDNF-like growth factors in forming memories, the researchers used a “molecular trick” to keep the proteins from binding with the appropriate TrkB receptors.

For the experiment, the scientists used wild-caught Aplysia, a marine snail frequently studied in learning and memory because of its large brain cells. The Aplysia received a series of five tail shocks, spaced 15 minutes apart. The shocks cause the animals to exhibit heightened withdrawal reflexes days and weeks after the shocks are over.

When the animals are shocked, a brain chemical known as serotonin is released that promotes the formation of a long-term memory associated with the shocks. However, when Carew and his colleagues blocked the interaction between the BDNF-like growth factors and the TrkB receptors, they found that serotonin alone was not enough to retain the long-term memory of the shock. While short-term memory was retained, 24 hours later the snails – which normally would remember the events of the previous day – exhibited no memory of the shocks. Carew and colleagues went on to show that, when the actions of the growth factors were prevented, long-term enhancement of the connections between the brain cells in the reflex circuit normally induced by the shock treatment was also blocked.

“We would never have expected that the secretion of these growth factors in response to serotonin would be critical for long-term memory formation in this system,” Carew said. “But it is apparent that without them, this process cannot happen.”

According to Carew, these findings could open possible avenues for treatments relating to memory loss. “This gives us some strong clues as to what we should be looking into for therapeutic interventions,” he said. “If we know that growth factors are important for long-term memory, then we can look at possible remedial roles they might play in diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia.”

Carew is a pioneer in the field known as the cellular biology of learning, which combines the disciplines of psychology and neurobiology. He held an endowed chair at Yale before coming to UCI in 2000. In 2001 he was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and was named a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2004.

Shiv Sharma of the National Brain Research Center in India; and Carolyn Sherff, Shara Stough and Vickie Hsuan of UCI collaborated with Carew on the study, which was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.

About the University of California, Irvine: The University of California, Irvine is a top-ranked university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Founded in 1965, UCI is among the fastest-growing University of California campuses, with more than 24,000 undergraduate and graduate students and about 1,400 faculty members. The second-largest employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI contributes an annual economic impact of $3.3 billion. For more UCI news, visit

Television: UCI has a broadcast studio available for live or taped interviews. For more information, visit

News Radio: UCI maintains on campus an ISDN line for conducting interviews with its faculty and experts. The use of this line is available free-of-charge to radio news programs/stations who wish to interview UCI faculty and experts. Use of the ISDN line is subject to availability and approval by the university.

Farnaz Khadem | EurekAlert!
Further information:

Further reports about: Carew UCI receptor

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Novel mechanisms of action discovered for the skin cancer medication Imiquimod
21.10.2016 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Second research flight into zero gravity
21.10.2016 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia

21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions

21.10.2016 | Information Technology

From ancient fossils to future cars

21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>