Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Nano Probe May Open New Window Into Cell Behavior

26.07.2006
Georgia Tech invention captures cell properties and biochemical signals in action

To create drugs capable of targeting some of the most devastating human diseases, scientists must first decode exactly how a cell or a group of cells communicates with other cells and reacts to a broad spectrum of complex biomolecules surrounding it.

But even the most sophisticated tools currently used for studying cell communications suffer from significant deficiencies. Typically, these tools can detect only a narrowly selected group of small molecules or, for a more sophisticated analysis, the cells must be destroyed for sample preparation. This makes it very difficult to observe complex cellular interactions just as they would occur in their natural habitat — the human body.

Georgia Tech researchers have created a nanoscale probe, the Scanning Mass Spectrometry (SMS) probe, that can capture both the biochemical makeup and topography of complex biological objects in their normal environment — opening the door for discovery of new biomarkers and improved gene studies, leading to better disease diagnosis and drug design on the cellular level. The research was presented in the July issue of IEE Electronics Letters.

The new instrument, a potentially very valuable tool for the emerging science of systems biology, may help researchers better understand cellular interactions at the most fundamental level, including cell signaling, as well as identifying protein expression and response to the external stimuli (e.g., exposure to drugs or changes in the environment) from the organ scale down to tissue and even the single cell level.

“At its core, disease is a disruption of normal cell signaling,” said Dr. Andrei Fedorov, a professor in Georgia Tech’s Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering and lead researcher on the project. “So, if one understands the network and all signals on the most fundamental level, one would be able to control and correct them if needed. The SMS probe can help map all those complex and intricate cellular communication pathways by probing cell activities in the natural cellular environment.”

The SMS probe offers the capability to gently pull biomolecules (proteins, metabolites, peptides) precisely at a specific point on the cell/tissue surface, ionize these biomolecules and produce “dry” ions suitable for analysis and then transport those ions to the mass spectrometer (an instrument that can detect proteins present even in ultra-small concentrations by measuring the relative masses of ionized atoms and molecules) for identification. The probe does this dynamically (not statically), imaging the surface and mapping cellular activities and communication potentially in real time. In essence, in scanning mode, the SMS probe could create images similar to movies of cell biochemical activities with high spatial and temporal resolution.

The SMS probe can be readily integrated with the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) or other scanning probes, and can not only image biochemical activity but also monitor the changes in the cell/tissue topology during the imaging.

“The probe potentially allows us to detect complex mechano-bio-electro-chemical events underlying cell communication, all at the same time!” Fedorov said. “The future work is in refinement of the idea and development of a versatile instrument that can be used by biological and medical scientists in advancing the frontiers of biomedical research.”

The key challenge for the Georgia Tech team, which includes Dr. Levent Degertekin, was to create a way for a mass spectrometer, the primary tool for studying proteins, to sample biomolecules from a small domain and do it dynamically, thus enabling biochemical imaging. The researchers had to find a way to pull the targeted molecules out of the sample, as if they were using virtual tweezers, and then transfer these molecules into a dry and electrically charged state suitable for mass spectrometric analysis.

The solution to the problem came from a trick related to the basic fluid mechanics of ionic fluids, as the researchers exploited strong capillary forces to confine fluid within a nanoscale domain of the probe inlet (enabling natural separation of liquid and gaseous environments) and then used the classical Taylor electrohydrodynamic focusing of the jets to produce charged ions, but in reverse (pull) rather than in a commonly-used forward (push) mode.

The Georgia Institute of Technology is one of the nation's premiere research universities. Ranked ninth among U.S. News & World Report's top public universities, Georgia Tech educates more than 17,000 students every year through its Colleges of Architecture, Computing, Engineering, Liberal Arts, Management and Sciences. Tech maintains a diverse campus and is among the nation's top producers of women and African-American engineers. The Institute offers research opportunities to both undergraduate and graduate students and is home to more than 100 interdisciplinary units plus the Georgia Tech Research Institute. During the 2004-2005 academic year, Georgia Tech reached $357 million in new research award funding. The Institute also maintains an international presence with campuses in France and Singapore and partnerships throughout the world.

Megan McRainey | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.icpa.gatech.edu

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

DGIST develops 20 times faster biosensor

24.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Nanoimprinted hyperlens array: Paving the way for practical super-resolution imaging

24.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Atomic-level motion may drive bacteria's ability to evade immune system defenses

24.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>