"The discovery of piRNAs reveals a new dimension of the small RNA world. The complexity of piRNAs and their correspondence to different types genomic sequences implicates their potentially diverse functions. This is another gold mine for studying gene regulation, especially that related to reproduction and inheritance," explains Dr. Lin.
Their papers will be available online (www.genesdev.org) ahead of the scheduled July 1st publication date.
While hundreds of small RNAs have been isolated from somatic tissues in mammals, these papers are representative of a number of recent and up-and-coming studies independently identifying unique small RNAs residing in the mouse germline. The newly identified piRNAs are bigger in size (26-31 nucleotides long) than most previously described small RNAs in mammals, and are shown to be associated with the piwi subfamily of the Argonaute protein family. They are largely expressed in the mouse testes, and are thought to play a role in spermatogenesis.
Future research will be aimed at elucidating the pathway of biogenesis of these novel, small RNAs, as well as the targets and function of this emerging class of molecules. Dr.Watanabe emphasizes that "Newly identified small RNAs have features clearly different from those of previously identified small RNAs such as miRNAs or siRNAs. The sequences of this novel small RNAs are not conserved between species. However, interestingly, the presence of this novel class of small RNAs is conserved among diverse animals including humans."
Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute
Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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