Bacteria (red) persuade skin cells (green)to let them in.
Bacteria give skin cells their marching orders.
Bacteria that cause potentially lethal ’flesh-eating’ infections make their entrance by telling skin cells to step aside. The bugs hijack the body’s signal for skin cells to become mobile.
Group A streptococci (GAS) normally infect the surface lining of the throat. But occasionally they penetrate skin or the tissues lining the airways, invading deep into the body and causing life-threatening disease.
"This generates a new dogma," says Lukas Huber, a cell biologist at the Molecular Pathology Research Institute in Vienna, Austria. Invading bacteria normally infect and destroy individual cells. "Clearly [GAS] are much smarter than that," he says.
GAS’ deceitful cloak resembles a signalling chemical called hyaluronic acid. This is released when cells must be rearranged - to heal wounded skin, for example. "The bacteria subvert this normal function," says Wessels.
Hyaluronic acid - or its bacterial doppelganger - binds to a receptor on the cell surface called CD44. When this happens " the junctions [between the cells] just open," says Huber.
Wolf in sheep’s clothing
Wessels and Cywes infected laboratory cultures of human skin with GAS. They saw the skin-cell membranes ’ruffling’, a sign that they had let go of their neighbours. A mutant form of GAS unable to produce the deceptive molecular coat was unable to penetrate skin.
Wessels and Cywes are now working to prevent GAS infection by blocking the CD44 receptors on cells, or interfering with GAS binding. They hope to gain an understanding of why GAS turn nasty, although that may have more to do with the infected individual than the bacteria, Wessels suspects.
"There are host issues that play a big role in who’s going to get the disease," says Elaine Tuomanen, an infectious disease expert at St Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee.
In the meantime, Wessel’s team hopes to develop a treatment to prevent throat infections with GAS.
"That’s certainly where the money is," comments Tuomanen.
TOM CLARKE | © Nature News Service
Researchers develop eco-friendly, 4-in-1 catalyst
25.04.2017 | Brown University
Transfecting cells gently – the LZH presents a GNOME prototype at the Labvolution 2017
25.04.2017 | Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
25.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
25.04.2017 | Materials Sciences
25.04.2017 | Life Sciences