Bacteria mate using a timely protruding phallus.
Mammalian cells rarely take bacteria up on their offer of DNA.
Bacteria caught mating with mammalian cells.
Cross-species coupling is generally frowned upon. But in the liberal labs of California it is actively being encouraged. Bugs that are persuaded to get down and dirty with hamster cells are rewriting sex manuals in the act.
Like humans, bacteria mate using a timely protruding phallus. It suckers a nearby bacterium and drags it close enough to shoot in DNA - a process called conjugation.
Waters hopes to exploit bacteria’s wanton ways for gene therapy - the transfer of healthy genes into human cells to compensate for defective ones causing disease. In the lungs, for example, resident bacteria could be modified to carry and transfer genes such as the one that is faulty in the lung disease cystic fibrosis.
"It could be a powerful way to deliver DNA," agrees Ghigo. Large populations of bacteria constantly attempting sex might have more success than a single dose of another gene-delivery drug.
Gene-therapy researcher Stephen Hyde at the University of Oxford, UK, is more doubtful. Thick protective mucous might stop the bacteria getting close to lung cells, he points out. Introducing bacteria into the body and transferring unwanted bacterial genes might also be risks.
In the lab, conjugation could be a way to transfer large pieces of DNA into mammalian cells. Such transfers are currently difficult, says Hyde, as the DNA tends to break easily.
Conjugation was first reported in 1946, winning its voyeur, Joshua Lederberg, a Nobel prize. The plasmid that carries the genes responsible was named the fertility factor.
The transfer of circular DNA always starts at a defined point. By interrupting mating bugs at regular intervals, geneticists were able to work out which genes had been passed over. Hence the first map of the E.coli chromosome was measured in minutes rather than megabases.
HELEN PEARSON | Nature News Service
More genes are active in high-performance maize
19.01.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
How plants see light
19.01.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.
We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...
What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...
For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.
Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...
At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.
No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.
Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...
08.01.2018 | Event News
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
19.01.2018 | Materials Sciences
19.01.2018 | Health and Medicine
19.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy