Oxygen piles up: the four atom form might make good fuel.
Scientists have detected a molecule they’ve been looking for since the 1920s.
Scientists in Italy have discovered a new form of oxygen1. In addition to the two well-known forms - ozone and the oxygen molecules in air - there is a third, they say, in which oxygen atoms are grouped in fours.
The oxygen molecules that we breathe (denoted O2) consist of two oxygen atoms. This, the most stable form of oxygen, makes up about one-fifth of air. Ozone is more reactive and comprises three oxygen atoms (O3). It is formed in the atmosphere in small quantities when sunlight splits O2 into its component atoms, which then recombine.
To prove conclusively that they had identified O4, Cacace’s team used mass spectrometry. This technique separates a mixture of electrically charged molecules (ions) according to their mass and charge.
The researchers combined O2 molecules and positively charged O2 ions to produce O4 ions, which are identifiable by being four times as massive as oxygen atoms. They then added an electron to each O4 ion, transforming it to a neutral molecule.
After a short interval, the team stripped an electron from each O4 molecule so that they could detect them again as ions (neutral molecules are invisible to mass spectrometry). They reasoned that if the neutral molecules were sufficiently stable, they would show up when re-ionized - as indeed they did.
What O4 looks like is still a mystery. Earlier theoretical calculations suggested two possibilities: a rhombus-shaped molecule with an atom at each corner, or a triangle of atoms with the fourth in the centre. But neither of these options fits the researchers’ results very well.
Instead, they think that O4 is probably composed of two dumbbell-like O2 molecules that are loosely bound together.
PHILIP BALL | © Nature News Service
Closing in on advanced prostate cancer
13.12.2017 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)
Visualizing single molecules in whole cells with a new spin
13.12.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard
MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.
Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...
Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong
Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
13.12.2017 | Information Technology
13.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
13.12.2017 | Health and Medicine