Jonas Nilsson and his associates have identified a new family of genes, the leucin-rich and immunoglobulin-like (LRIG) family. They found that the first member of the family, LRIG1, shuts down the activity of the tumor protein ErbB1. LRIG1 introduces the ErbB1 protein to the protein degradation machinery, which in turn destroys the ErbB1 protein. In patients, they have also shown that expression of LRIG proteins is associated with increased survival rates in patients with malignant brain tumors.
Apace with the growth of our knowledge of oncology, new approaches have been developed for the treatment of tumors. For instance, treatments have been devised to seek out specific targets in the cancer cell, several of which are already in clinical use. One example is the treatment of breast cancer with Herceptin.
One type of target that these selective treatments seek out are receptors on the cell surface (receptors for growth factors). They are often hyperactive in tumors, which leads to increased resistance to chemo and radiation therapy, as well as increased tumor growth and metastasizing. Therefore, the idea is to shut down, or at least slow down, these hyperactive receptors as a way of defeating the tumor. The ErbB receptors belong to a class of cell-surface receptors, and when they are overly activated, which is often the case in tumors, they are associated with poor survival rates.
In his dissertation work, Jonas Nilsson looked for a naturally occurring retardant mechanism for ErbB receptors. He worked on a banana fruit fly protein, Kekkon-1, which serves to slow down the fly’s equivalent of the ErbB receptor. A similar protein was cloned for humans and then described and named leucin-rich and immunoglobulin-like protein 1 (LRIG1). The findings showed that LRIG1 belongs to a protein family of its own, with three family members, LRIG1, LRIG2 and LRIG3. Studies of LRIG1 showed that it binds to ErbB receptors and accelerates their degradation, thus slowing down their activity. LRIG2 and LRIG3 evince great similarities to LRIG1, which indicates that they may perform similar functions in the cell, but this has not yet been demonstrated. However, studies of brain tumors showed that the expression of LRIG proteins is associated with improved survival rates in patients. Further, it was shown that the expression of LRIG3 is an independent prognostic marker in malignant brain tumors.
In summary, by way of analogies to the banana fruit fly protein Kekkon-1, Jonas Nilsson’s dissertation identifies a new family of genes, confirms his theories that it functions as a retardant of the tumor protein ErbB1, and finally shows that the expression of LRIG proteins is associated with increased survival in patients with malignant brain tumors.
Bertil Born | alfa
How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH
A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...
19.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.06.2017 | Information Technology