Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New method to analyse the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the human genome

25.04.2006
Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a new method for analyzing the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the human genome. This large region, found on chromosome 6, encodes more than 400 known genes. The best known of these genes are the HLA genes that govern tissue type and participate in the immune system by protecting people from infection or by governing susceptibility to autoimmune diseases or cancer.

The researchers’ new lab method is described in the paper "Long-range Multi-locus Haplotype Phasing of the MHC" which was published today (April 21) in the early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The paper will appear in the May 2 print edition. The method may have the potential of being an efficient way to map genes in the MHC that are responsible for many human diseases, and might also be useful in studying other gene complexes that have a lot of variability.

The senior and corresponding author is Effie Petersdorf, M.D., member of the Clinical Research Division. Fellow researchers are Zhen Guo, Ph.D., and Mari Malkki, Ph.D., of the Clinical Research Division; and Dr. Leroy Hood of Seattle’s Institute for Systems Biology.

The MHC is one of the most diverse regions of the human genome, and its diversity is thought to have been shaped by widely varying evolutionary forces. Many of its genes are ancient and may have remained unchanged throughout human evolution.

The MHC also governs the degree of people’s acceptance or rejection of transplanted organs or bone marrow transplants. Identical twins, for example, have identical MHC genes and therefore can receive transplants from each other without risk of rejection. The MHC also is likely to govern many as yet unknown functions in the human body.

Segments of MHC are almost always inherited as an entire block, called a haplotype, a word that means "single unit," rather than as separate genes. Haplotypes may be one of the genetic reasons behind complex diseases that are not associated with just one gene or one genetic mutation, but with sets of genes.

About a year ago, an international collaboration of scientists produced a haplotype map of the human genome named the HapMap. The project was an effort to catalog genetic variation throughout the human genome, including the MHC region.

Family studies and statistical analysis are among the tools used to determine haplotypes. In addition, several laboratory methods have been developed to define haplotypes. However, these methods have limitations in studying the MHC because of its extensive diversity, the uneven distribution of its coding variation and the physical distances between genes within the MHC region.

"Population genetic epidemiology studies of unrelated individuals may lack family studies to definitely ascertain the physical linkage of genes or markers on haplotypes," Petersdorf said. "To address this need, we developed a method to link HLA genes across long distances of chromosome 6. This method provides haplotype information without a family study, and may be useful for mapping genes of the MHC that cause common diseases in large unrelated populations."

The researchers decided to work on a laboratory tool to study particular sections of the MHC, a choice that was motivated by the importance of these genes in disease studies, in anthropological research, and in the selection of potential donors for organ transplants or blood and marrow transplants. They wrote that it might be possible to expand their method to span the entire MHC, but this would require reconstructing the huge complex into several overlapping segments.

The new lab method, the researchers noted, could possibly fulfill an unmet need for tools to use in conducting genetic studies in populations of unrelated individuals. The researchers have applied for a U.S. non-provisional patent for their haplotyping method.

Dean Forbes | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.fhcrc.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists unlock ability to generate new sensory hair cells
22.02.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital

nachricht New insights into the information processing of motor neurons
22.02.2017 | Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microhotplates for a smart gas sensor

22.02.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Scientists unlock ability to generate new sensory hair cells

22.02.2017 | Life Sciences

Prediction: More gas-giants will be found orbiting Sun-like stars

22.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>