Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New method to analyse the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the human genome

25.04.2006
Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a new method for analyzing the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the human genome. This large region, found on chromosome 6, encodes more than 400 known genes. The best known of these genes are the HLA genes that govern tissue type and participate in the immune system by protecting people from infection or by governing susceptibility to autoimmune diseases or cancer.

The researchers’ new lab method is described in the paper "Long-range Multi-locus Haplotype Phasing of the MHC" which was published today (April 21) in the early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The paper will appear in the May 2 print edition. The method may have the potential of being an efficient way to map genes in the MHC that are responsible for many human diseases, and might also be useful in studying other gene complexes that have a lot of variability.

The senior and corresponding author is Effie Petersdorf, M.D., member of the Clinical Research Division. Fellow researchers are Zhen Guo, Ph.D., and Mari Malkki, Ph.D., of the Clinical Research Division; and Dr. Leroy Hood of Seattle’s Institute for Systems Biology.

The MHC is one of the most diverse regions of the human genome, and its diversity is thought to have been shaped by widely varying evolutionary forces. Many of its genes are ancient and may have remained unchanged throughout human evolution.

The MHC also governs the degree of people’s acceptance or rejection of transplanted organs or bone marrow transplants. Identical twins, for example, have identical MHC genes and therefore can receive transplants from each other without risk of rejection. The MHC also is likely to govern many as yet unknown functions in the human body.

Segments of MHC are almost always inherited as an entire block, called a haplotype, a word that means "single unit," rather than as separate genes. Haplotypes may be one of the genetic reasons behind complex diseases that are not associated with just one gene or one genetic mutation, but with sets of genes.

About a year ago, an international collaboration of scientists produced a haplotype map of the human genome named the HapMap. The project was an effort to catalog genetic variation throughout the human genome, including the MHC region.

Family studies and statistical analysis are among the tools used to determine haplotypes. In addition, several laboratory methods have been developed to define haplotypes. However, these methods have limitations in studying the MHC because of its extensive diversity, the uneven distribution of its coding variation and the physical distances between genes within the MHC region.

"Population genetic epidemiology studies of unrelated individuals may lack family studies to definitely ascertain the physical linkage of genes or markers on haplotypes," Petersdorf said. "To address this need, we developed a method to link HLA genes across long distances of chromosome 6. This method provides haplotype information without a family study, and may be useful for mapping genes of the MHC that cause common diseases in large unrelated populations."

The researchers decided to work on a laboratory tool to study particular sections of the MHC, a choice that was motivated by the importance of these genes in disease studies, in anthropological research, and in the selection of potential donors for organ transplants or blood and marrow transplants. They wrote that it might be possible to expand their method to span the entire MHC, but this would require reconstructing the huge complex into several overlapping segments.

The new lab method, the researchers noted, could possibly fulfill an unmet need for tools to use in conducting genetic studies in populations of unrelated individuals. The researchers have applied for a U.S. non-provisional patent for their haplotyping method.

Dean Forbes | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.fhcrc.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Individual Receptors Caught at Work
19.10.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Rapid environmental change makes species more vulnerable to extinction
19.10.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrode materials from the microwave oven

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

New material for digital memories of the future

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods

19.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>