Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The Notch effect steers stem cells into cells of the nervous system

11.04.2006
Stem cell scientists at the University of Edinburgh have discovered that Notch, a protein first discovered more than 80 years ago in the fruit fly, directs unspecialized embryonic stem cells to become cells of the nervous system. These unexpected findings pave the way for using lab-grown cells to model disease and test the effects of new drugs, and are published online this week in the open-access journal PLoS Biology.

Embryonic stem cells have the potential to make all 200 cell types in the body. The challenge is to restrain this diversity and uncover the signals that commit stem cells to a single specialised function. Sally Lowell and her colleagues have now established that Notch gives embryonic stem cells the critical push towards becoming cells of the nervous system.


When Notch is activated in embryonic stem cells, most turn into nerve cells (green)


When Notch is switched off, most cells remain as embryonic stem cells (pink)

The researchers show that when Notch is activated in embryonic stem cells, up to 90% of the cells in the dish become nerve cells. In any colony of embryonic stem cells, under normal conditions, many never become cells of the nervous system: they spontaneously change into other cell types or remain as embryonic stem cells.

The Notch effect can be observed in both mouse and human embryonic stem cells, and can be created without any recourse to genetic engineering - all it takes is the presence of Notch activating signals in the cells that stem cells grow on.

As individual embryonic stem cells become specialised, they communicate with those around them. Notch is a major means of communication, and has, according to Dr Lowell, “a domino effect: once it is switched on in a small group of cells, it sets off a wave of Notch activation in neighbouring cells, directing them all to become cells of the nervous system.”

This research has far-reaching implications for other aspects of stem cell research. Dr Lowell adds, “We expect our findings to shed light on how to make other types of cell, such as muscle or pancreatic cells. If we can identify the processes that Notch blocks in embryonic stem cells we will have a handle on how to get them started, and so drive embryonic stem cells to become other types of cell that are more difficult to grow in the lab”.

Says Professor Austin Smith, leading the Edinburgh team and coordinating the EuroStemCell consortium, “This discovery gives us another method to generate pure populations of nerve cells – so important for drug screening, disease modelling and potential cell therapies. As in stem cell colonies, communication between EuroStemCell researchers has been crucial to this discovery. Our work would not have been possible without information and materials from colleagues in Cambridge, Paris and Stockholm.”

This research was supported by EuroStemCell, the BBSRC, the MRC and The Wellcome Trust.

Ana Coutinho | alfa
Further information:
http://www.plos.org/press/plbi-04-05-smith.pdf

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Surprising similarity in fly and mouse motion vision
30.07.2015 | Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried

nachricht Intracellular microlasers could allow precise labeling of a trillion individual cells
30.07.2015 | Massachusetts General Hospital

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: On the crest of the wave: Electronics on a time scale shorter than a cycle of light

Physicists from Regensburg and Marburg, Germany have succeeded in taking a slow-motion movie of speeding electrons in a solid driven by a strong light wave. In the process, they have unraveled a novel quantum phenomenon, which will be reported in the forthcoming edition of Nature.

The advent of ever faster electronics featuring clock rates up to the multiple-gigahertz range has revolutionized our day-to-day life. Researchers and...

Im Focus: Superfast fluorescence sets new speed record

Plasmonic device has speed and efficiency to serve optical computers

Researchers have developed an ultrafast light-emitting device that can flip on and off 90 billion times a second and could form the basis of optical computing.

Im Focus: Unlocking the rice immune system

Joint BioEnergy Institute study identifies bacterial protein that is key to protecting rice against bacterial blight

A bacterial signal that when recognized by rice plants enables the plants to resist a devastating blight disease has been identified by a multi-national team...

Im Focus: Smarter window materials can control light and energy

Researchers in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin are one step closer to delivering smart windows with a new level of energy efficiency, engineering materials that allow windows to reveal light without transferring heat and, conversely, to block light while allowing heat transmission, as described in two new research papers.

By allowing indoor occupants to more precisely control the energy and sunlight passing through a window, the new materials could significantly reduce costs for...

Im Focus: Simulations lead to design of near-frictionless material

Argonne scientists used Mira to identify and improve a new mechanism for eliminating friction, which fed into the development of a hybrid material that exhibited superlubricity at the macroscale for the first time. Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) researchers helped enable the groundbreaking simulations by overcoming a performance bottleneck that doubled the speed of the team's code.

While reviewing the simulation results of a promising new lubricant material, Argonne researcher Sanket Deshmukh stumbled upon a phenomenon that had never been...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

3rd Euro Bio-inspired - International Conference and Exhibition on Bio-inspired Materials

23.07.2015 | Event News

Clash of Realities – International Conference on the Art, Technology and Theory of Digital Games

10.07.2015 | Event News

World Conference on Regenerative Medicine in Leipzig: Last chance to submit abstracts until 2 July

25.06.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Surprising similarity in fly and mouse motion vision

30.07.2015 | Life Sciences

Efficient Infrared Heat Saves Time and Energy in the Manufacture of Motor Vehicle Carpets

30.07.2015 | Trade Fair News

Roentgen prize goes to Dr Eleftherios Goulielmakis

30.07.2015 | Awards Funding

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>