Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers uncover genetic signature that predicts colon cancer

05.04.2006
Researchers at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia have uncovered a genetic "signature" that accurately identifies colon cancer--a key, they hope, to better understand how the cancer develops.

Colon cancer may begin when processes that regulate adult stem cells in the colon go awry. A handful of stem cells lie in the bottom of tiny tube-like "crypts" in the epithelium (or lining) of the colon. Stem cells produce daughter cells that proliferate, eventually making their way to the top of the crypt, where they become specialized colon cells. Simply put, mutations in the stem cells lead to mutant daughter cells and cancer.

To try to understand some of these processes, Bruce Boman, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Division of Genetic and Preventive Medicine at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University and at Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center, and his co-workers used a microarray chip to analyze the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are tiny pieces of genetic material discovered in recent years that are thought to be important in regulating gene expression and in the development of cancer. The chip carried complementary genetic "probes" for most of the known miRNAs in human and mouse.

The researchers first compared miRNA expression in the bottom tenth of normal colon crypts, which is where stem cells are located, to the other nine-tenths of the crypt, where daughter cells were proliferating. This approach was designed to tell the difference between stem cell and non-stem cell activity.

They also examined miRNA gene expression in colon cancer tissue, finding changes in expression between normal tissue and cancer. More specifically, they found a pattern of 16 miRNA genes that characterizes the crypt bottom. The pattern accurately predicted which colon tissues were normal and which were cancerous.

Dr. Boman, professor of medicine and director of Jefferson’s Hereditary Cancer Center and Gastrointestinal Cancer Program at Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center, presents the team’s findings April 4, 2006 at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research in Washington, D.C.

"This will not only give us insights into how tissue dynamics are regulated in normal colonic epithelium, but also in the development of cancer as well, where the normal steady state is disrupted," he says. "It might also help us better understand the stem cell origin of colon cancer.

"If a miRNA is binding to a gene product that is key to differentiation of a cell, and the miRNA is lost, maybe that cell won’t be able to undergo differentiation and will become a cancer cell," he says. "We’re now looking at the gene targets for the specific miRNAs.

"The exciting part," notes Dr. Boman, "is that by figuring out which of these molecules are lost in cancer, they can theoretically be replaced. This could have tremendous potential for the development of new drugs."

Steve Benowitz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jefferson.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel socio-ecological approach helps identifying suitable wolf habitats
17.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

nachricht New, ultra-flexible probes form reliable, scar-free integration with the brain
16.02.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Switched-on DNA

20.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Second cause of hidden hearing loss identified

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>