Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Using probes to control chemistry - molecule by molecule

31.03.2006
Using probes originally designed to detect and image topographical features on surfaces, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory have demonstrated the ability to initiate and spatially localize chemical reactions on the submicron scale.

They have been able to reliably manipulate chemistry on a very, very small scale in contrast to normal beaker-type reactions carried out in bulk. Such "site-selective" chemistry, taken down to the molecule-by-molecule level, could lead to new ways to etch small-scale electronic circuits, the development of extremely sensitive chemical sensors, as well as a better understanding and control of chemical reactions such as those used to convert sunlight into electricity in solar cells.

"Atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses probes that are analogous to the stylus on an old-style record player," says Brookhaven Lab materials scientist Stanislaus S. Wong. However, as opposed to "feeling" the nature of slight variations of pits within record grooves, AFM probes normally detect intermolecular interactions, related to changes in surface chemistry. "What we’ve demonstrated in our work is the ability to alter the AFM probe so it can be used not just passively, to sense chemistry, but actively, to initiate or control chemical reactions on a surface," Wong said.

In their proof-of-principle experiment, Wong’s group attached titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the end of a conventional AFM probe and used it to photocatalytically oxidize selected sites on a thin film of photoreactive dye -- a model for understanding photocatalysis in solar cells. Mandakini Kanungo, a postdoctoral researcher in Wong’s lab, will describe this work in a talk at the 231st national meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS) in Atlanta, Georgia, on Thursday, March 30, 2006.

In the experiment, oxidized and unaffected areas of the dye were often separated by a mere 0.1 microns (millionths of a meter). The hope is to increase the spatial resolution of the technique to affect changes molecule by molecule, or at the one-nanometer (billionths of a meter) scale, Wong says.

Being able to control chemistry at this level has many potential applications. First, it gives the scientists deeper insight into the kinetics of reactions at the molecular level when, for example, a catalyst triggers the in situ oxidation of a chemical in the presence of light. This reaction is important toward understanding how to convert sunlight into useable forms of energy such as electricity. A "close-up" view of the chemistry will allow scientists to experiment with different types of catalyst particles, sizes and shapes of particles, and other characteristics to see precisely how these changes affect the kinetics and other dynamic properties associated with the photocatalytic process. This work could ultimately lead to the design of more efficient catalysts and more efficient solar cells.

In another application, Wong says, "You can use the AFM tip almost like an ultrafine pencil to draw out areas that you would like to react. This creates nanometer-scale ’lines’ that are different from the chemistry of surrounding areas on the substrate." In essence, he says, you can etch out such "lines of reactivity," using chemistry to "draw," for example, nanoscale circuits. Such small-scale circuits could further shrink the scale of electronic devices, as well as increase the efficiency and/or speed of data storage and retrieval.

One important benefit of this technique is that it is environmentally friendly, Wong says, using no electric current or potentially harmful reaction conditions. Furthermore, the technique has such high specificity that it offers the potential for single-molecule detection and analysis -- a benefit with possible applications in refined chemical sensor technology. Such sensors might be able to detect as little as a single molecule of a potentially hazardous material released, for example, in a terror attack.

Karen McNulty Walsh | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bnl.gov

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Decoding the genome's cryptic language
27.02.2017 | University of California - San Diego

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New pop-up strategy inspired by cuts, not folds

27.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Sandia uses confined nanoparticles to improve hydrogen storage materials performance

27.02.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

Decoding the genome's cryptic language

27.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>