Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Key new tool for identifying problem badger setts harbouring bovine TB

New research led by biologists at the University of Warwick has revealed a new technique that could become a valuable way of identifying badger setts that harbour TB diseased and infectious badgers in regions where TB in cattle, caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is problematic.

The research paper published on Thursday 23rd March 2006, in the Royal Society’s scientific journal Biology Letters entitled "Is Mycobacterium bovis in the environment important for the persistence of bovine tuberculosis?", describes the research group’s use of molecular methods (a technique called PCR) to examine the prevalence of M. bovis in soil collected from badger setts and in badger faeces collected from latrines, on cattle farms located in six endemic regions of the UK.

The researchers carried out a PCR assay targeted at the MPB70 antigen gene specific to the mycobacteria closely related to, and including, M. bovis (a group known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex - MTBC). A second PCR then targeted a particular element within the MTBC group which allows the researchers to confirm that they were indeed specifically dealing with M. bovis.

The researchers detected MTBC in soil of badger setts on 78% of 60 farms sampled, and in 56% of badger latrines on 9 farms sampled. On contaminated farms an average 43% of the setts and 29% of latrines were positive. In related research, they have also shown the organism to persist in the environment for months. These results suggest that once the organism is excreted into the environment by cattle, badgers, or other wildlife, it could act as a source for further transmission.

The researchers also carried out a more detailed study of high-density badger populations in Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire, the former not located in an endemic TB region, the latter known to be endemic for TB. Here they screened setts and latrines within known badger social group territories using the PCR assays. In the Gloucestershire population, they found 100% of the examined badger setts and latrines to be contaminated with M.bovis, whereas none of the samples in the Oxfordshire population were positive.

In the Gloucestershire study they took a further step and correlated the results of environmental detection of M. bovis within the social group territories, and the infectious status of the badgers living within those social groups. Information was already available from that site on the number and frequency of badgers that were excreting M. bovis into the environment from results of mark-recapture studies (when badgers were captured, anaesthetized, sampled, and released up to four times per year). Crucially, the researchers were able to show a strong correlation between the number and frequency of excreting badgers within each social group and the proportion of environmental samples per territory that tested PCR positive.

This is of course what one might expect to find if one knew which badgers are diseased and infectious, and which setts they used - but this is precisely the problem faced by managers of bovine TB and the farmers - without technology such as this its is very difficult to differentiate "clean" setts containing uninfected badgers from "problem setts" containing infected badgers.

This study potentially opens up a much wider range of choices for all stakeholders in the badger/bovine TB debate. The lack of precise knowledge of the infectious status of badger populations on or near to cattle TB infected farms has led many to advocate blanket culling of badger populations. This action in itself has recently been shown by the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (the so called "Krebs Trial") to lead to the social disturbance amongst surviving badgers with consequential increases, rather than decreases, in TB infection rates in cattle. However, if one really was set on culling as an option, the technology employed by the Warwick researchers has the potential to allow a more targeted cull strategy of "problem setts".

Demonstration that M. bovis can survive in the environment for months also raises important questions about how infected setts and latrines should be handled even after the populations using them have been cleared.

This is clearly an important new tool and the research team is now seeking further funding to refine their analysis and explore how it could be effectively implemented to identify all contamination points (and animal sources) on the farm to improve biosecurity.

One of the lead researchers on the project Dr Orin Courtenay from the University of Warwick’s department of Biological Sciences said:

"We do not advocate culling badgers to control bovine TB, particularly in light of the scientific results emerging from the Randomised Badger Culling Trial. However if the government takes the decision to continue to cull badgers, then we would prefer that culling is targeted at diseased and infectious animals- indeed cattle, badgers or other wildlife hosts-, rather than see a policy of untargeted culling which by nature includes removal of healthy and uninfected animals. With some further scientific evaluation, a "sett test" based on state-of-the-art molecular technology could provide a tool towards achieving this aim."

Peter Dunn | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Don't Give the Slightest Chance to Toxic Elements in Medicinal Products
23.03.2018 | Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)

nachricht North and South Cooperation to Combat Tuberculosis
22.03.2018 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Space observation with radar to secure Germany's space infrastructure

Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.

The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...

Im Focus: Researchers Discover New Anti-Cancer Protein

An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.

The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...

Im Focus: Researchers at Fraunhofer monitor re-entry of Chinese space station Tiangong-1

In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.

Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...

Im Focus: Alliance „OLED Licht Forum“ – Key partner for OLED lighting solutions

Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.

They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...

Im Focus: Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

Oceans formed before Tharsis and evolved together, shaping climate history of Mars

A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

New solar solutions for sustainable buildings and cities

23.03.2018 | Event News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

For graphite pellets, just add elbow grease

23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences

Unique communication strategy discovered in stem cell pathway controlling plant growth

23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

Sharpening the X-ray view of the nanocosm

23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>