Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Lymphocytes From A Risk Group

07.03.2006


The thyroid gland is very sensitive to ionizing radiation. The number of patients with thyroid gland cancer is particularly high among those who endured the Chernobyl catastrophe in childhood. Ultrasonic scanning and bioptic tests investigations are usually used for early detection of thyroid gland cancer but researchers do not stop the search of more efficient methods.



They deal with molecular markers of cancer in order to discover mutation of the genes participating in carcinogenesis. Unfortunately, the existing methods for search of mutant genes are labour-intensive and expensive, therefore they do not fit for mass use. However, there is no need to seek changes particularly in oncogenes. In case of malignant transformation, mutation frequency increases in all cells of the organism.

Thus, European researchers have discovered that people with increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in lymphocytes of blood more often fall ill with cancer. According to Japanese and Russian researchers’ data, the patients suffering from larynx cancer and some other malignant growths, even before treatment starts experience increase of quantity of lymphocytes with T-cell receptor (TCR) genes mutations. These mutations are easy to discover via a special immunological test, which was used by the Obninsk physicians for search of mutant lymphocytes in blood of patients with thyroid gland cancer.


The investigation involved venous blood of oncological patients (who had not undergone treatment yet) and that of healthy donors. Double increase of mutant lymphocyte frequency (more than 6.2 mutants per 10,000 cells) as compared to the background group was discovered with 37 percent of cancer patients, and this result cannot be considered accidental. Increased mutation frequency may be a hereditary trait - predisposition to genome instability, when probability of malignant transformation rises significantly. The same thing happens in case of some hereditary diseases (for example, Bloom’s syndrome, Fanconi anemia). Among the mutations discovered with patients with such syndromes, T-cell receptor mutations occupied a noticeable place.

After the Chernobyl catastrophe, a vast territory was exposed to contamination by radionuclids, and its inhabitants – to action of low ionizing radiation doses. Ionizing radiation leads to genetic instability. Among participants to the experiment, who lived in contaminated territories, the frequency of TCR-mutation made 45 percent. There is other indirect evidence as well that genotoxic influence, including ionizing radiation increase TCR-mutation frequency.

Therefore, a large number of mutant T-lymphocytes with a person means that their owner has become a prey to irradiation or his/her genome is non-stable for some reason. In this case, the patient should at least be attributed to a risk group, and it should be kept in mind that TCR-mutations are often found with oncological patients prior to treatment . This circumstance will help discover cancer at the very early stage.

Increased frequency of mutations in patient’s lymphocytes is the evidence of risk. But, unfortunately, the lack of mutation does not mean anything. Therefore, the researchers are going to continue the search for other molecular markers of cancer development. The more tests are used, the higher probability is to discover the risk.

Sergey Komarov | alfa
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria
23.05.2017 | Rice University

nachricht Discovery of an alga's 'dictionary of genes' could lead to advances in biofuels, medicine
23.05.2017 | University of California - Los Angeles

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists propose synestia, a new type of planetary object

23.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria

23.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Medical gamma-ray camera is now palm-sized

23.05.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>