Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UCR researchers design chip that can improve citrus varieties

03.03.2006


GeneChip Citrus Genome Array launched by Affymetrix, Inc.


The GeneChip® Citrus Genome Array can improve citrus varieties and suggest ways to better manage them.



UC Riverside researchers, in partnership with Affymetrix, Inc., have designed a chip – the GeneChip® Citrus Genome Array – that can improve citrus varieties and suggest ways to better manage them. By helping determine which genes are turned on in a tissue of citrus – genes that are associated with taste, acidic content and disease, for example – the chip provides information useful to researchers for rectifying existing problems and making improvements to the fruit.

The citrus array will be used to develop new diagnostic tools for the improvement of citrus agriculture and post-harvest fruit handling, as well as to understand mechanisms underlying citrus diseases. Researchers will study traits pertinent to the citrus industry such as easy peeling, seedlessness, flavor components, pest and disease control, nutritional characteristics, and reproductive development.


"The citrus array helps us quickly examine a certain trait in citrus," said Mikeal Roose, a professor of genetics in the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences at UCR and a leader of the three-year research project. "For a trait posing a problem for the consumer, such as an undesirable flavor, we can identify genes associated with the trait and target these for correction to improve the flavor. The chip also helps us address citrus diseases by helping us see what happens in cells when a citrus plant is under attack from a virus. And with this chip we can better understand what happens at the cellular level when oranges are put in cold storage after they are harvested, leading eventually to better methods of storage that improve fruit flavor."

Manufactured by Affymetrix, Inc., the GeneChip® Citrus Genome Array is made up of a glass wafer on to which nearly one million different pieces of citrus DNA are deposited on a grid or microarray using methods similar to those used to produce computer chips. The glass wafer is encased in a plastic container somewhat smaller than the size of a credit card.

To use the chip, researchers purify total RNA (which reflects the genes expressed in the tissue) from plant tissue, make a copy of these molecules with a chemical tag added, and then "wash" the chip with the RNA sample. If a gene is being expressed in the tissue, its corresponding RNA will be present and bind to the complementary DNA sequences on the chip. The locations of the bound RNA have a visible signal because of the tag, rather like bright and dim pixels on a computer screen. Analysis of which pieces of DNA on the chip have signals indicates which genes are expressed in the tissue.

The chip is the first commercial citrus microarray and allows analysis of expression of more than 20,000 different genes. The array will also be used to develop a detailed genetic map of citrus that will help researchers locate many genes. The map location information will be used to make the development of new varieties more efficient.

"This industry-supported effort both added to and made use of publicly available citrus sequences to develop an entirely new tool that will benefit all citrus researchers and help sustain the citrus industry locally and worldwide," said Timothy Close, a professor of genetics at UCR and a co-leader of the project. "We owe a special thanks to colleagues in the citrus community: Abhaya Dandekar at UC Davis, Bob Shatters, Jose Chaparro and Greg McCollum at the USDA Horticultural Research Lab, and Avi Sadka at Volcani Institute in Israel for sharing the full content of their citrus sequence data.

"Other colleagues in the United States, Japan and Spain who deposited sequences to the public repository maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information also made valuable contributions. The use of all available public data resulted in very nice coverage of the citrus genome. We are pleased with the outcome – the initial data from the citrus GeneChip have fulfilled our highest expectations."

Iqbal Pittalwala | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucr.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds
26.05.2017 | Cornell University

nachricht How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system
26.05.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>