Researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have discovered the underlying cause of a type of ataxia, hereditary disorders characterized by poor balance, loss of posture and difficulty performing rapid coordinated movement. Their work also led to a drug that significantly improved the motor coordination in mice with ataxia--a finding that could lead to better therapies for the disease. The study appears in the March issue of Nature Neuroscience and was featured in the publications advance online edition.
The research, led by Dr. Kamran Khodakhah, associate professor in the department of neuroscience at Einstein, focused on a type of ataxia called episodic ataxia type-2. It results from gene mutations that affect calcium channels, which are involved in releasing neurotransmitters in the brain and regulating excitability in neurons. Episodic ataxia type-2 was thought to be due to impaired transmission of neurotransmitters, but the Einstein scientists suspected that something else was going on.
They studied specialized cells in the brains cerebellum called Purkinje cells, which are rich in calcium channels. Purkinje cells help coordinate movement by acting as information clearinghouses: They take in sensory and other inputs relayed to them by more than 150,000 excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, combine them with the cellos own intrinsic activity or "pacemaking," and then send out the signals necessary for motor coordination.
Karen Gardner | EurekAlert!
Scientists spin artificial silk from whey protein
24.01.2017 | Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY
Choreographing the microRNA-target dance
24.01.2017 | UT Southwestern Medical Center
A Swedish-German team of researchers has cleared up a key process for the artificial production of silk. With the help of the intense X-rays from DESY's...
For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.
According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
24.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.01.2017 | Life Sciences
24.01.2017 | Health and Medicine