Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study identifies molecule essential for proper localization of blood stem cells

16.01.2006


Result supports interaction between bone formation and production of blood, immune cells



Scientists at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Center for Regenerative Medicine and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HCSI) have defined a molecule that dictates how blood stem cells travel to the bone marrow and establish blood and immune cell production. The discovery may help improve bone marrow stem cell transplantation and the treatment of several blood disorders.

"This is another remarkable example of how bone and bone marrow interact. A receptor known to participate in the body’s regulation of calcium and bone also is critical for stem cells to engraft in the bone marrow and regenerate blood and immune cells," says David Scadden, MD, director of the MGH Center for Regenerative Medicine and co-director of the HSCI. "It reminds us how tissues interact and how looking closely at where stem cells reside may tell us a lot about how to manipulate them." Scadden is senior author of the report, which will be published in the journal Nature and has received early online release.


Hematopoietic or blood stem cells are critical to the daily production of over 10 billion blood cells and are the basis for bone marrow transplant therapy for cancer. Rare and difficult to identify, these cells are extremely powerful at regenerating blood and immune cells but only if they travel to the proper location when introduced into the body. Typically the cells are infused into a vein, and they find their way to the bone marrow through a process that depends on largely unknown molecules.

Within the bone marrow cavity, stem cells are usually found in the outer layer close to the inner surface of the bone. Since the process of remodeling bone takes place in the adjacent bone tissue and because studies by Scadden’s group and others have shown that bone-forming osteoblast cells are essential to the regulation of the stem cell environment, it seemed probable that fundamental interactions exist between the processes of bone formation and stem cell development. As increased extracellular calcium is required for bone formation, the researchers theorized that a molecule called the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), present on many cells, might be key to the localization of blood stem cells.

To test their theory, the researchers first verified the presence of CaR on primitive marrow cells taken from normal mice. They then ran several experiments using transgenic mice that do not produce the CaR protein and found that, while many types of marrow and adjacent bone cells were present in normal proportions, levels of blood stem cells were very low in the marrow cavities of the transgenic mice. Other experiments showed that the absence of other cell-surface molecules did not affect the numbers of stem cells in the marrow.

Examination of the spleens and the blood of the transgenic mice showed that the numbers of primitive blood stem cells were significantly elevated in those areas, indicating that the absence of CaR did not affect the production of stem cells by the fetal liver. In a group of normal mice that received radiation at doses that would destroy the bone marrow, transplantation of fetal liver cells from mice with and without CaR allowed the animals to survive, but those who received cells from CaR-negative mice had dramatically fewer stem cells in their bone marrow. Additional experiments showed that the CaR-negative cells were unable to adhere to collagen I, an essential bone protein produced by the osteoblasts.

"Since there are already drugs available that target this receptor, we may be able to quickly adapt these findings in animals to the treatment of human patients," says Scadden, who is a professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.

Sue McGreevey | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mgh.harvard.edu/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht At last, butterflies get a bigger, better evolutionary tree
16.02.2018 | Florida Museum of Natural History

nachricht New treatment strategies for chronic kidney disease from the animal kingdom
16.02.2018 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

Im Focus: Autonomous 3D scanner supports individual manufacturing processes

Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).

Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fingerprints of quantum entanglement

16.02.2018 | Information Technology

'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers

16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Hubble sees Neptune's mysterious shrinking storm

16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>