News from the Cell Biology Meeting in San Francisco
Bushwhacking through the cellular jungle, researchers are always relieved to stumble across a known molecular pathway. Imagine their excitement at finding a major intersection in unmapped territory. Antoine Muchir and Howard Worman at the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons in New York and their colleagues in France, have discovered a cellular "crossroads" that links the function of the MAP kinase pathway, long implicated in heart failure, to A-type nuclear lamins. Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding all A-type lamins, cause at least two heritable diseases that affect the heart: Dilated Cardiomyopathy with conduction system defects (DC) and Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD), which affects muscles and tendons in addition to causing life-threatening cardiomyopathy and cardiac conduction system defects. Muchir presented the findings Sunday at the 45th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology in San Francisco.
Instead of using a machete, these cellular trailblazers followed a mouse. The researchers created a "knock-in" model mouse by replacing the normal mouse LMNA gene with a mutated human gene that causes EDMD. Lamin proteins form a network of filaments inside the nucleus, conferring shape and mechanical stability, but they are also "used" by many other proteins and pathways in the nucleus, for a variety of purposes. Mutations in LMNA cause a wide range of human diseases--besides DC and EDMD, these "laminopathies" include other heritable forms of muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy, neuropathy, bone disorders and accelerated aging (progeria) syndromes.
John Fleischman | EurekAlert!
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Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
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An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
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Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
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