News from the Cell Biology Meeting in San Francisco
Bushwhacking through the cellular jungle, researchers are always relieved to stumble across a known molecular pathway. Imagine their excitement at finding a major intersection in unmapped territory. Antoine Muchir and Howard Worman at the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons in New York and their colleagues in France, have discovered a cellular "crossroads" that links the function of the MAP kinase pathway, long implicated in heart failure, to A-type nuclear lamins. Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding all A-type lamins, cause at least two heritable diseases that affect the heart: Dilated Cardiomyopathy with conduction system defects (DC) and Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD), which affects muscles and tendons in addition to causing life-threatening cardiomyopathy and cardiac conduction system defects. Muchir presented the findings Sunday at the 45th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology in San Francisco.
Instead of using a machete, these cellular trailblazers followed a mouse. The researchers created a "knock-in" model mouse by replacing the normal mouse LMNA gene with a mutated human gene that causes EDMD. Lamin proteins form a network of filaments inside the nucleus, conferring shape and mechanical stability, but they are also "used" by many other proteins and pathways in the nucleus, for a variety of purposes. Mutations in LMNA cause a wide range of human diseases--besides DC and EDMD, these "laminopathies" include other heritable forms of muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy, neuropathy, bone disorders and accelerated aging (progeria) syndromes.
John Fleischman | EurekAlert!
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At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
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Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
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UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
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Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
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