News from the Cell Biology Meeting in San Francisco
Bushwhacking through the cellular jungle, researchers are always relieved to stumble across a known molecular pathway. Imagine their excitement at finding a major intersection in unmapped territory. Antoine Muchir and Howard Worman at the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons in New York and their colleagues in France, have discovered a cellular "crossroads" that links the function of the MAP kinase pathway, long implicated in heart failure, to A-type nuclear lamins. Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding all A-type lamins, cause at least two heritable diseases that affect the heart: Dilated Cardiomyopathy with conduction system defects (DC) and Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD), which affects muscles and tendons in addition to causing life-threatening cardiomyopathy and cardiac conduction system defects. Muchir presented the findings Sunday at the 45th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology in San Francisco.
Instead of using a machete, these cellular trailblazers followed a mouse. The researchers created a "knock-in" model mouse by replacing the normal mouse LMNA gene with a mutated human gene that causes EDMD. Lamin proteins form a network of filaments inside the nucleus, conferring shape and mechanical stability, but they are also "used" by many other proteins and pathways in the nucleus, for a variety of purposes. Mutations in LMNA cause a wide range of human diseases--besides DC and EDMD, these "laminopathies" include other heritable forms of muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy, neuropathy, bone disorders and accelerated aging (progeria) syndromes.
John Fleischman | EurekAlert!
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In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
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