Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Avian flu in perspective: New England Journal article reviews ’spectacular’ findings

24.11.2005


Saint Louis University influenza researcher comments in Nov. 24 issue



An article by Robert Belshe, M.D., of Saint Louis University School of Medicine in this week’s New England Journal of Medicine reviews recent "spectacular achievements of contemporary molecular biology" that hold great importance as the world prepares for a possible flu pandemic.

These achievements, including a recent genetic sequencing and recreation of the virus from the 1918 flu pandemic, "may enable us to track viruses years before they develop the capacity to replicate with high efficiency in humans," Belshe writes.


The new knowledge of the genetic sequences of influenza viruses that predate the 1918 epidemic will be "extremely helpful in determining the events that may lead to the adaptation of avian viruses to humans before the occurrence of pandemic influenza."

And as the virus continues to adapt, scientists now know what to look for. Belshe said scientists should conduct worldwide surveillance to monitor this adaptation process.

"It gives us some reassurance that by continuing to monitor the current virus in birds, we can get a sense as to when it’ll be an efficient virus," Belshe says. "We may have some time to develop new vaccines and better therapies."

Belshe reviews recent articles in Science and Nature as part of his perspective article "The Origins of Pandemic Influenza â€" Lessons from the 1918 Virus."

The lead author of the research in Nature was Jeffery Taubenberger, M.D., Ph.D., of the U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, and the research in Science was led by Terrence Tumpey, Ph.D., of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

"These recent research findings involving avian flu are startling, and they tell us that there are at least two mechanisms by which a pandemic influenza epidemic could emerge," Belshe says. "This research provides critically important insight into the origin of pandemic influenza."

Both mechanisms described in the articles were observed during worldwide pandemics of the 20th century. Scientists now conclude that the prospect of a new worldwide pandemic during the 21st century could involve either of two possibilities:

  • A direct spread of an entirely avian virus from birds to humans. This is what happened during the 1918 Spanish flu, the deadliest of last century’s three pandemics.
  • A "reassortment" virus that mixes bird flu with already circulating human influenza strains to create a new strain. This was the case during the 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic and the 1957 Asia flu pandemic. (Most of the flu strains of today are genetically related to the 1968 outbreak, which as a reassortment virus is genetically related to both the 1957 and 1918 viruses.)

Belshe said the question of the moment involves which mechanism a future pandemic could involve. "Are we going to see an event like 1918, an avian virus adapting to man, or will it be an event like 1957 or 1968, where an avian virus contributes some genetic material by mixing in with a current strain of the human virus?" Belshe says. "We don’t know what will happen or when it will happen, but we know it will happen."

And although it can’t be said for sure whether the current avian flu virus can adapt readily to the point where human-to-human transmission is possible, the recent research findings do provide some clues as to what genetic changes are necessary for such an event to occur. In fact, several additional genetic changes must occur in the currently circulating bird flu viruses before these viruses will begin to spread efficiently from person to person and this can be monitored closely by scientists.

"Taubenberger estimated that based upon the rate of evolution, the 1918 epidemic had circulated in man since 1900," Belshe says. "So it took a while to become highly efficient as a pandemic virus."

A copy of the full article can be found in the Nov. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine (2209-2211).

Belshe is director of the Center for Vaccine Development at Saint Louis University School of Medicine. He has conducted research related to influenza for more than two decades, and he has previously published articles in the New England Journal of Medicine on the influenza anti-viral Tamiflu, on the nasal spray influenza vaccine FluMist, and last fall on intradermal administration of flu vaccinations. He has authored dozens of papers on influenza that have been covered in various scholarly journals, including a 1998 commentary in The Lancet article that warned of a coming global flu pandemic and of the necessity of preparing for one.

Joe Muehlenkamp | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.slu.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University

nachricht Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
28.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Transport of molecular motors into cilia

28.03.2017 | Life Sciences

A novel hybrid UAV that may change the way people operate drones

28.03.2017 | Information Technology

NASA spacecraft investigate clues in radiation belts

28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>