Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with the development of lung cancer in laboratory studies. However, clinical trials of natural and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, called retinoids, for the prevention of lung cancer have been largely unsuccessful in the general population. A new study in the November 16 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute finds that targeting a previously unknown variant of a common retinoid receptor may restore the beneficial effects of retinoids in lung cancer cells.
Retinoids help regulate certain cellular functions in the body, such as cell growth and differentiation. These effects are mediated by retinoic acid receptors (RARs), including RAR-beta. Clinical trials have supported a role for the use of retinoids in the prevention of aerodigestive tract cancers. However, large randomized trials of retinoids and retinoic acid have shown that they are ineffective--and may even be harmful--in preventing lung cancer in smokers. Laboratory studies have found that, as lung cancer develops, RAR-beta becomes silenced, which makes cells resistant to retinoids. This loss of expression of RAR-beta is often seen in the lung cells of smokers.
W. Jeffrey Petty, M.D., previously of Dartmouth Medical School and now a faculty member of the Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C., and colleagues at Dartmouth set out to discover the mechanisms responsible for RAR-beta silencing and to see if they could restore the expression of RAR-beta using a compound called azacytidine. In the process of studying human bronchial epithelial cells that were resistant to treatment with retinoic acid, they discovered a previously unknown variant of one of the subtypes of RAR-beta.
Kate Travis | EurekAlert!
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Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
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In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
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