Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A genome wide search for genes underlying anxiety disorders turned up unexpected candidates

31.10.2005


Increasing the activity of two enzymes better known for their role in oxidative stress metabolism turns normally relaxed mice into "Nervous Nellies," according to research conducted at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and reported in the early online edition of Nature.



Locally overexpressing either glyoxalase 1 or glutathione reductase 1 in mouse brains significantly increased anxiety in usually relaxed mice and made already jittery mice even more anxiety-ridden. Inhibition of glyoxalase 1 had the opposite effect.

"Currently, very little is known about the genes that predispose to psychiatric disease," says first author Iiris Hovatta, who was a postdoctoral research in Salk’s Laboratory of Genetics when the research was conducted. "All of the 17 genes that we identified are very good candidates for human anxiety disorders and most of them have never been associated with anxiety-related behavior before," she adds.


"This is a very exciting study where we can genetically interfere with the behavior outcome, emphasizing the genetic hard wiring of certain traits,’’ says Inder Verma, professor in the Laboratory for Genetics at the Salk Institute.

Out of the 17 candidates, the researchers focused on the most promising ones, glyoxalase 1 and glutathione reductase 1, since both enzymes belonged to the same metabolic pathway. In addition, a study by Turkish scientists had found elevated levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with severe anxiety disorders. "It might be that oxidative stress metabolism and anxiety levels are linked, although we do not know the exact mechanism at the moment," says Hovatta.

Like other complex psychiatric traits, fear and anxiety are influenced by many genes. There is no such thing as a single "fear" gene that lets anxiety spiral out of control when the gene’s regulation is disturbed, making it difficult to identify the genetic roots of anxiety disorders.

For their study, the scientists relied on inbred mouse strains that differ considerably in their natural anxiety levels. Just like in humans suffering from anxiety disorders, the sights and sounds of unfamiliar environments can trigger panic in mice with anxious dispositions, causing them to freeze in place. Unlike their more relaxed contemporaries, naturally nervous mice are not explorers and may seem wary of open spaces.

Instead of studying individual genes the researchers simultaneously assessed the activity patterns of about 10,000 genes in specific brain regions with the help of microarrays. This extensive scan allowed the researchers to pinpoint multiple genes whose expression levels differed in relaxed and anxiety-prone mice.

To increase the specificity of their microarray analysis, they looked in only specific brain areas that have been shown to play a role in anxiety and fear (the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, central peri-aqueductal grey and pituitary gland).

"We were incredibly surprised since out of the entire genome only 17 genes were robustly correlated with anxiety levels across many different strains," says Carrolee Barlow, lead author of the study and an adjunct professor in the Laboratory of Genetics. "Almost half of them were enzymes and not neurotransmitters as one might expect."

In the past, scientists tried to correlate complex psychiatric diseases with different forms of the genes controlling neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers that brain cells use to shuttle outgoing signals to neighboring cells, and their receptors, albeit with limited success. "That’s why we chose an unbiased approach that didn’t limit us to neurotransmitters," explains Barlow.

Now, Hovatta wants to find out what relevance, if any, the identified genes have to human anxiety disorders. "It is really exciting to study neurobiology of anxiety in mice and to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the regulation of behavior, but I am mostly interested in trying to find genes that predispose humans to anxiety disorders and to perhaps in the future try to develop better treatment practices. We are still far away from that," she cautions, "but it is the long term goal of the project."

Researchers contributing to the study include first author Iiris Hovatta, formerly at the Salk Institute, now at National Public Health Institute in Helsinki Finland, research assistants Richard S. Tennant and Robert Helton, research fellows Robert A. Marr and Oded Singer, both in the Laboratory of Genetics at the Salk Institute, Jeffrey M. Redwine at Neurome Inc., Julie A. Ellison, formerly at the Salk, now at Helix Medical Communications, Eric E. Schadt at Rosetta Inpharmatics LLC, Inder Verma, professor in the Laboratory for Genetics at the Salk Institute, David J. Lockhart, co-principal investigator and visiting scholar at the Salk Institute, and Carrolee Barlow, at Braincells Inc.

Cathy Yarbrough | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.salk.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Fingerprint' technique spots frog populations at risk from pollution
27.03.2017 | Lancaster University

nachricht Parallel computation provides deeper insight into brain function
27.03.2017 | Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Northern oceans pumped CO2 into the atmosphere

27.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

Fingerprint' technique spots frog populations at risk from pollution

27.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Big data approach to predict protein structure

27.03.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>