Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Fitting in: Newly evolved genes adopt a variety of strategies to remain in the gene pool

04.10.2005


The largest-ever experimental analysis of duplicated genes provides insight into mechanisms of evolution



When Mother Nature creates an identical copy of a gene in an organism’s genome, the duplicated copy is usually deleted, inactivated, or otherwise rendered nonfunctional in order to prevent genetic redundancy and to preserve biological homeostasis. In some cases, however, gene duplicates are maintained in a functional state. Until now, the biological and evolutionary forces behind the maintenance of these duplicates as functional components of the genome have remained unclear.

To determine the basis for the persistence of functional gene duplicates in the genome, three scientists at the Institute of Molecular Systems Biology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich have collaborated on the largest systematic analysis of duplicated gene function to date. Using an integrative combination of computational and experimental approaches, they classified duplicate pairs of genes involved in yeast metabolism into four functional categories: (1) back-up, where a duplicate gene copy has acquired the ability to compensate in the absence of the other copy, (2) subfunctionalization, where a duplicate copy has evolved a completely new, non-overlapping function, (3) regulation, where the differential regulation of duplicates fine-tunes pathway usage, and (4) gene dosage, where the increased expression provided by the duplicate gene copy augments production of the corresponding protein.


Their results, which appear in the October issue of the journal Genome Research, indicate that no single role prevails but that all four of the mechanisms play a substantial role in maintaining duplicate genes in the genome.

"Our results contradict other recent publications that have focused on a single selective pressure as the basis for the retention of gene duplicates," explains Dr. Uwe Sauer, principal investigator on the project and Professor at the Institute of Molecular Systems Biology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich. "We show that, at least for yeast metabolism, the persistence of the duplicated fraction of the genome can be better explained with an array of different, often overlapping functional roles."

Yeast metabolism provides an ideal model for investigating the functional basis for gene duplication because a large proportion of genes involved in this biological process have been duplicated. Of the 672 genes involved in yeast metabolism, 295 genes can be classified into 105 families of duplicates. To put this into perspective, the yeast genome has an estimated total of 6,000 genes, 1,500 of which are considered to be duplicates. An ancient whole-genome duplication event is thought to be responsible for the formation of many of these duplicate copies.

Sauer’s group demonstrated that of the 105 families of duplicated gene families involved in yeast metabolism, 34 demonstrated back-up function, 19 were involved in increased gene dosage, 18 exhibited regulatory functions, and 18 had evolved new, more specialized functions. Therefore, each of these mechanisms plays a substantial and important role in the maintenance of functional duplicates in the gene pool.

Maria A. Smit | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cshl.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity
22.09.2017 | DFG-Forschungszentrum für Regenerative Therapien TU Dresden

nachricht The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet
22.09.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology

22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering

Calculating quietness

22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>