One of the remaining challenges for evolutionary developmental studies of mammals, whose evolution is best known from their teeth, is how their tooth shape is altered during development. Researchers of the University of Helsinki together with their Japanese colleagues from the University of Kioto now propose a ‘balance of induction’ mechanism directing the placement of tooth shape features called cusps. Position and shape of cusps determine whether a tooth shape belongs to human or mouse, for example. Whereas developmental initiation of cusp formation is known to involve several developmental genes at the places of future cusps, it has remained unknown how cusps form at the right places.
Computer simulations on tooth development have suggested that there should be a gene inhibiting induction of cusps. The research team has now identified this inhibitor to be a recently identified gene called ectodin. It turned out that ectodin is the first gene that is expressed as a mirror image of the future cusps.
The team generated a mouse that has no functional ectodin. Whereas the mice appear fairly normal, the areas forming cusps were much broader resulting in cheek teeth whose shape resembles more rhinoceros teeth than mouse teeth. Furthermore, these mice have extra teeth and sometimes adjacent teeth are fused. These results indicate that there is a delicate balance of induction and inhibition in determining tooth cusps and that ectodin is a key gene in this developmental control.
Irma Thesleff | alfa
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Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
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