Researchers have capitalized on the unique properties of a sperm cell to follow cell membrane fusion as it occurs during fertilization, tracking the full cascade of events for the first time. The findings could reveal new ways to enhance or block fertilization, as well as how to control the secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones such as insulin.
Luis Mayorga, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) international research scholar, and colleagues at the National University of Cuyo School of Medicine in Mendoza, Argentina, took advantage of the cellular specialization that gives sperm one irreversible chance to fertilize an egg.
The group followed the sperms secretion of the enzymes used to penetrate the protective outer coating that surrounds an egg. "Because the sperm has a single opportunity, this secretion has to be very well-regulated," said Mayorga. "If the sperm doesnt respond right on time, it wont get through the eggs coating." And since fertilization is one-way and all-or-nothing, so too is the fusion event that releases the sperms enzymes. This tight control enabled Mayorgas laboratory to capture a molecular movie of fusion as it unfolded. Their findings will be published in the September issue of the journal Public Library of Science Biology.
Cindy Fox Aisen | EurekAlert!
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Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
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In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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