Thermophilic bacteria can thrive in extreme heat because their proteins have an abundance of disulfides (yellow, above), covalent bonds between sulfur atoms that improve stability and likely boost heat-tolerance. (Yeates et al.)
Warm-blooded creatures maintain a relatively stable body temperature that cannot tolerate the stress of intense heat (or cold). When it’s too hot proteins destabilize and degrade--in some cases, with fatal results. But some bacterial and archaeal organisms appear to defy nature (as we think of it) by flourishing in extremely high temperatures. The archaeal microbe Pyrobaculum aerophilum, for example--originally found in a boiling marine water hole in Italy--thrives at ~100 °C (212 °F).
Published online this week in the open-access journal PLoS Biology Todd Yeates and colleagues from UCLA have investigated the mechanisms that engineer this remarkable heat resistance. By way of an elegant analysis of publicly available genome sequence and protein structure data, they answer the question: how do these thermophilic bacteria and archaea manage to maintain active, stable proteins at such high temperatures? The authors found that proteins from P. aerophilum along with some other thermophiles have many disulfide bonds (covalent bonds between two spatially proximate cysteines), which are known to improve stability.
By mapping intracellular gene sequences from 199 prokaryote genomes onto sequence-related proteins with known three-dimensional structures, they produced structural models which revealed when disulfide bonds are likely to form. A bias was found for disulfides in a set of thermophilic genomes. To prove that these predictions really do form disulfide bonds, the authors solved the structure of one protein from P. aerophilum--which was indeed stabilized by three disulfide bonds.
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