A therapeutic approach for battling cancer that is based on infection with a specially designed virus similar to the one that causes the common cold has shown promise in clinical trials. Now, new research suggests that fever might be a useful weapon in the fight as well. The study, published in the July issue of Cancer Cell, demonstrates that tumor cells are even more sensitive to viral therapy after they have been incubated at an elevated temperature. The findings could have a significant impact on the future success of viral strategies for cancer therapy.
ONYX-015 is a mutated adenovirus that undergoes selective replication in tumor cells until the cells become so full of virus that they burst and die. The virus is modified so that it only copies itself in tumor cells and is safe for normal cells. In clinical trials, ONYX-015 was a successful therapy for many cancer patients, but the success varied considerably for reasons that were not well understood. Dr. Clodagh C. OShea and colleagues from the Cancer Research Institute at the University of California, San Francisco examined why ONYX-015 did not undergo replication in some cancer cells and if it might be possible to sensitize tumor cells to ONYX-015 therapy.
The researchers demonstrated that resistant tumor cells fail to complete an RNA export function that is necessary for ONYX-015 replication. Interestingly, when a cellular heat shock response was induced in the resistant tumor cells, either pharmacologically or by incubating the cells at an elevated temperature similar to that experienced by humans when they have a fever, the RNA export function was restored. Therefore, induction of the heat shock response could rescue ONYX-015 replication in resistant tumor cells.
Heidi Hardman | EurekAlert!
Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
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Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
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In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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