Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Primate virus jumps species barrier to humans for first time in Asia

14.07.2005


Scientists have identified the first reported case in Asia of primate-to-human transmission of simian foamy virus (SFV), a retrovirus found in macaques and other primates that so far has not been shown to cause disease in humans. The transmission of the virus from a monkey to a human took place at a monkey temple in Bali, Indonesia, the researchers report in the July issue of the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. Even though this particular virus jumping to humans may not prove dangerous, the scientists warn that the dense human and primate populations in Asia could lead to other primate-borne viruses jumping the species barrier and causing human disease.



"The issue of primate-to-human viral transmission has been studied extensively in Africa, largely because that is where HIV originated," explains Dr. Lisa Jones-Engel, lead author of the study and a research scientist in the Division of International Programs at the Washington National Primate Research Center. "But there has not been much work on the topic in Asia, which has huge primate diversity and large human populations."

Jones-Engel and her co-authors also argue for more research on diverse contexts of human-primate contact. The vast majority of previous viral transmission research focused on bushmeat hunting and consumption, a practice in which local residents hunt monkeys for food. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS in humans, is believed to have originated as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and jumped the species barrier to humans when African bushmeat hunters came into contact with blood from infected animals.


Though bushmeat hunting and consumption may be a significant factor in viral transmission in Africa, Jones-Engel says, people in Asia have many other contexts in which they come into contact with primates, including animal markets, primate pet ownership, urban performing primates, and zoos. In addition, monkeys are significant symbols in both Buddhism and Hinduism, and monkey temples – places of religious worship that have become refuges for populations of primates – are common throughout much of South and Southeast Asia. In these areas, protected macaque populations have thrived alongside dense human settlement for centuries.

On the island of Bali alone, there are more than 40 such temples, which are frequented by tourists from around the world. About 700,000 international tourists visit the island’s four main monkey temples every year. Temple workers and people who live near the temples also have a great deal of contact with monkeys at the religious sites.

"In Asia, the amount of contact between humans and primates in temple settings dwarfs the contact due to bushmeat hunting," says Jones-Engel. For this study, the researchers tested blood samples from 82 people who work in or around a temple in Bali, as well as samples from macaques in the area. They found antibodies for simian foamy virus in the blood of one 47-year-old farmer who visited the temple every day. They confirmed the tests by performing a DNA analysis of the man’s blood, and found that the SFV strain he carried was the same strain found in the temple’s macaques. The man denied owning a monkey as a pet, or hunting monkeys for food. He had been bitten once and scratched more than once by the temple’s macaques.

Researchers still don’t know the long-term effects of SFV on humans – there are about 40 known cases of people being infected, through laboratory or zoo contact, or through bushmeat hunting in Africa. There are no known cases of human disease yet.

However, Jones-Engel and her fellow researchers warn that there are other primate viruses known to be harmful that could jump the species barrier. They don’t want people to be afraid of coming in contact with macaques or other primates, but they do urge people to be cautious and careful when interacting with monkeys. Feeding the animals, or even carrying food into a temple, can greatly increase the risk of a bite or scratch, which can lead to transmission of infection. Visitors occasionally engage in other risky behavior, such as touching animals or trying to hold baby monkeys. Limiting such behavior can reduce the risk of bites and scratches.

"If you look at free-ranging monkeys in Singapore’s nature reserves, you see that feeding by visitors is not allowed, and it is actively discouraged," says Gregory Engel, an attending physician at Swedish/Providence Hospital in Seattle, Wash., a clinical instructor of family medicine at the University of Washington, and a co-author on the study. "Interspecies interaction there is very different, and rates of human-monkey contact are much lower."

Limiting dangerous contact between primates and humans can have other benefits, as well, such as reducing the transmission of human infections to monkeys. Human measles, for instance, can cause disease in monkeys and can even kill them. Other primate species have already seen significant population losses because of infection by human illnesses.

Justin Reedy | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.washington.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Tag it EASI – a new method for accurate protein analysis
20.06.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie

nachricht How to track and trace a protein: Nanosensors monitor intracellular deliveries
19.06.2018 | Universität Basel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Creating a new composite fuel for new-generation fast reactors

20.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Game-changing finding pushes 3D-printing to the molecular limit

20.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Could this material enable autonomous vehicles to come to market sooner?

20.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>