Researchers at the University of Minnesota Cancer Center and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, have discovered a new method that could accelerate the way cancer-causing genes are found and could lead to a more accurate identification of the genes, according to two studies in the July 14, 2005, issue of Nature*.
The gene identification method was developed in genetically modified mice and utilized a piece of jumping DNA, called Sleeping Beauty. Jumping genes, or transposons, insert themselves into or between genes and can activate or inactivate a gene’s normal function. Related transposons are natural to the genetic makeup of humans, animals and fish, but, through millions of years of evolution, most transposons became inactive dead-ends. In 1997, in another study, University of Minnesota researchers took defunct, non-functioning jumping genes from fish and made the genes jump again. This research had reactivated the jumping genes from millions of years of evolutionary sleep; hence the name Sleeping Beauty.
In the two current research studies, specially designed Sleeping Beauty transposons were introduced into mouse DNA and made to jump around in the nucleus of mouse cells. Eventually the transposons jumped into cancer-causing genes and caused a tumor to form. By isolating and studying the genes from tumors that contained Sleeping Beauty, researchers were able to efficiently find genes linked to cancer by seeing whether Sleeping Beauty turned them on or off -- in effect, uncovering the fingerprint of each tumor’s cancer genes.
Michael Miller | EurekAlert!
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The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
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