Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers discover stem cell ’guide’ that may be key for targeting neural stem cell treatments

27.06.2005


UCI study shows how new neurons created from adult stem cells are directed to specific brain regions



UC Irvine School of Medicine researchers have discovered how new neurons born from endogenous neural stem cells are sent to regions of the brain where they can replace old and dying cells, a finding that suggests how stem cell therapies can be specifically targeted to brain regions affected by neurodegenerative diseases or by stroke.

Associate Professor Qun-Yong Zhou and graduate student Kwan L. Ng in the UCI Department of Pharmacology have identified a protein that guides these new neurons to a particular brain region. The protein, a small peptide called prokineticin 2 (PK2), was found to play a key regulatory role for the proper functional integration of these new neurons in the brain. A few years ago, PK2 was shown by the same research group to be an important regulator of circadian rhythms. The current study appears in the June 24 issue of the journal Science.


"One of the keys to developing promising new therapies for debilitating neurodegenerative diseases lies in our understanding of how new neurons are created and integrated into mature brain tissue," Zhou said. "This protein is an attractive drug target for either boosting neuron-forming processes or stem cell-based therapies for diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, or for stroke and other brain injuries."

While all neurons are originally born and differentiated from their stem cell progenitors during development, the adult brain maintains at least some regions where neural stem cells create new neurons to replace old and dying ones. One area is the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, which are fluid-filled cavities in both brain hemispheres connected the central canal of the spinal cord.

Zhou and his colleagues discovered how PK2 guides the migration of neurons born from neural stem cells from the subventricular zone in the brain’s core through mature tissue to reach the olfactory bulb, the "smell" part of the brain located above the sinus cavity. PK2 allows these new neurons to settle into the proper areas of the olfactory bulb, thus permitting these neurons to function normally.

"Our findings identify one of the first endogenous guidance molecules for migrating neurons in the adult brain," Zhou said. "We are learning that molecules, like PK2, which direct the movement of neurons are crucial for neuronal replacement, and they demonstrate how adult stem cells might be manipulated for this process."

PK2 accomplishes this task by working with its corresponding cell receptors, which are part of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. GPCRs are proteins found in a cell’s membrane and play a critical role in transferring signals from outside of a cell to the molecular machinery within the cell. GPCRs are the largest family of proteins that serve as drug targets. It has been estimated that at least 40 percent of all medicines on the market act on this family of receptors.

Tom Vasich | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uci.edu
http://www.today.uci.edu.

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists unlock ability to generate new sensory hair cells
22.02.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital

nachricht New insights into the information processing of motor neurons
22.02.2017 | Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Prediction: More gas-giants will be found orbiting Sun-like stars

22.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers identify cause of hereditary skeletal muscle disorder

22.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

Positrons as a new tool for lithium ion battery research: Holes in the electrode

22.02.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>