Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers discover stem cell ’guide’ that may be key for targeting neural stem cell treatments

27.06.2005


UCI study shows how new neurons created from adult stem cells are directed to specific brain regions



UC Irvine School of Medicine researchers have discovered how new neurons born from endogenous neural stem cells are sent to regions of the brain where they can replace old and dying cells, a finding that suggests how stem cell therapies can be specifically targeted to brain regions affected by neurodegenerative diseases or by stroke.

Associate Professor Qun-Yong Zhou and graduate student Kwan L. Ng in the UCI Department of Pharmacology have identified a protein that guides these new neurons to a particular brain region. The protein, a small peptide called prokineticin 2 (PK2), was found to play a key regulatory role for the proper functional integration of these new neurons in the brain. A few years ago, PK2 was shown by the same research group to be an important regulator of circadian rhythms. The current study appears in the June 24 issue of the journal Science.


"One of the keys to developing promising new therapies for debilitating neurodegenerative diseases lies in our understanding of how new neurons are created and integrated into mature brain tissue," Zhou said. "This protein is an attractive drug target for either boosting neuron-forming processes or stem cell-based therapies for diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, or for stroke and other brain injuries."

While all neurons are originally born and differentiated from their stem cell progenitors during development, the adult brain maintains at least some regions where neural stem cells create new neurons to replace old and dying ones. One area is the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, which are fluid-filled cavities in both brain hemispheres connected the central canal of the spinal cord.

Zhou and his colleagues discovered how PK2 guides the migration of neurons born from neural stem cells from the subventricular zone in the brain’s core through mature tissue to reach the olfactory bulb, the "smell" part of the brain located above the sinus cavity. PK2 allows these new neurons to settle into the proper areas of the olfactory bulb, thus permitting these neurons to function normally.

"Our findings identify one of the first endogenous guidance molecules for migrating neurons in the adult brain," Zhou said. "We are learning that molecules, like PK2, which direct the movement of neurons are crucial for neuronal replacement, and they demonstrate how adult stem cells might be manipulated for this process."

PK2 accomplishes this task by working with its corresponding cell receptors, which are part of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. GPCRs are proteins found in a cell’s membrane and play a critical role in transferring signals from outside of a cell to the molecular machinery within the cell. GPCRs are the largest family of proteins that serve as drug targets. It has been estimated that at least 40 percent of all medicines on the market act on this family of receptors.

Tom Vasich | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uci.edu
http://www.today.uci.edu.

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Single-stranded DNA and RNA origami go live
15.12.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

nachricht New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists
15.12.2017 | Louisiana State University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>