Genetically engineered mice closely mimic what happens to people who have dry form of age-related macular degeneration
Researchers at the University of Utah have developed genetically engineered mice that closely mimic what happens to humans who suffer from the juvenile, or dry, form of age-related macular degeneration. The findings are reported in the March 4, 2005 Early Online Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The mice express a mutant ELOV4 gene that causes humans to develop from the juvenile form of macular degeneration known as Stargardt disease. The gene was discovered by the same team of University of Utah scientists in 2001. The mutation prevents retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE) from disposing of cellular waste know as lipofuscin (including the fluorophore A2E).
This buildup of waste causes degeneration of the RPE cells in the central retina and results in progressive vision loss in both humans and mice with the mutation. "To date, these mice provide one of the best models to study both Stargardt disease and a dry form of age-related macular degeneration. Using these mice, it is now possible to test a variety of treatment strategies including cell transplantation, gene therapy and pharmaceuticals," said Kang Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences at University of Utahs John A. Moran Eye Center and an investigator in the Program in Human Molecular Biology and Genetics at the Universitys Eccles Institute of Human Genetics.
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The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
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The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
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Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
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