Taking steroids is a definite no-no for human athletes, but treating plants with steroids could offer performance enhancement of a more desirable nature by boosting the biomass and seed yields of crops. Unfortunately, plant steroids are complex, expensive chemicals, and the biological mechanisms by which they alter plant growth and development have remained largely a mystery.
Now, however, two research articles by Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Joanne Chory and her colleagues open a new pathway to understanding how plant steroids work at the molecular level. The discoveries made by Chorys team may one day lead to less expensive ways to trigger growth enhancement of plants. "The common theme of these two articles is that we are now beginning to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which steroid hormones regulate gene expression in plants," said Chory, who is at The Salk Institute for Biological Studies.
The first study reveals how plant steroid hormones, called brassinosteroids, plug into and activate receptor proteins on the surface of plant cells. Receptor activation is the first step in triggering processes, such as growth, development, the stress response and senescence -- the deterioration of plants at the end of a growing season. In a second study, the researchers identified and clarified the function of specific transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate genes involved in the cells response to steroids.
Jim Keeley | EurekAlert!
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Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
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