In a finding that broadens our insight into the cause of certain kinds of UV-induced skin cancer, researchers at Erasmus University Medical Center (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) have employed an evolutionarily ancient enzyme-repair system to identify the principal type of DNA damage responsible for the onset of skin-tumor development. The researchers findings also suggest that this enzyme system may be useful in developing preventative therapies against skin cancer.
Ultraviolet light is a known source of damage to our DNA, but under normal conditions humans and other mammals are capable of removing UV-induced DNA damage by a DNA repair mechanism called nucleotide excision repair. Insufficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage, which for example may occur after excessive unprotected sunbathing, can lead to cellular death – recognized as sunburn of the skin – and may cause permanent changes in the DNA (mutations) that ultimately can result in the onset of skin cancer. Thus far it was not clear how the two major types of UV-induced DNA lesions – cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4)photoproducts (6-4PPs) – contribute to the processes of cell death and cancer formation. Identifying the relative contributions of the two types of damage to tumor formation is critical for the development of therapies that could help prevent skin cancer. Moreover, CPDs and 6-4PPs have particular potential to cause lasting damage to mammalian cells because photolyases – a class of enzymes capable of efficiently repairing these lesions – have apparently been lost from placental mammals over the course of evolution.
Thus, most mammals, including humans, can only repair these lesions through a much less direct and elaborate process called nucleotide excision repair.
Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth
09.12.2016 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Plant-based substance boosts eyelash growth
09.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
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