Gene chips, or microarrays, have proven to be immensely important in measuring the activity of thousands of genes at once in such cells as cancer cells or immune cells. The use of these chips has given scientists snapshots of gene activity that lead to better understanding of the genetic machinery of the cells. This understanding has led to new ways to kill cancers or to manipulate the immune system, for example.
Gene chips consist of vast arrays of thousands of specific genetic segments spotted onto tiny chips. When gene extracts of cells are applied to the chips, labeled with fluorescent indicators, genes from the cell extracts attach to their complementary counterparts on the chips. Measurements of the fluorescence of each spot give scientists an indication of the activity of particular genes.
As vital as they are to studies of individual types of cells, gene chips have proven to be less useful in efforts to understand the genetic signatures of specific brain cells, because a myriad of subtly different subtypes of brain cells are intertwined in brain tissue.
Heidi Hardman | EurekAlert!
Oestrogen regulates pathological changes of bones via bone lining cells
28.07.2017 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
Programming cells with computer-like logic
27.07.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard
Spectrally narrow x-ray pulses may be “sharpened” by purely mechanical means. This sounds surprisingly, but a team of theoretical and experimental physicists developed and realized such a method. It is based on fast motions, precisely synchronized with the pulses, of a target interacting with the x-ray light. Thereby, photons are redistributed within the x-ray pulse to the desired spectral region.
A team of theoretical physicists from the MPI for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg has developed a novel method to intensify the spectrally broad x-ray...
Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.
Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...
Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers
Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...
Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.
At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...
3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects
A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...
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28.07.2017 | Life Sciences