Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers discover new gene in colon cancer

14.12.2004


A naturally occurring COX-2 inhibitor



Cancer researchers at the Case Western Reserve University (Case) School of Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland (UHC) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have found a "Celebrex-like" gene that suppresses the growth of colon cancer. The researchers discovered that the gene, called 15-PGDH, is found in normal cells and is virtually undetectable in colon cancer cells. When the researchers restored the gene in tumor cells and injected them into immune-deficient mice, the mice showed little or no tumor development. The study appears in the Dec. 14 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The gene 15-PGDH acts as an antagonist to control an enzyme called COX-2. An increase in COX-2 is a major early event in the genesis of human colon tumors.

Sanford Markowitz, M.D., the Francis Wragg Ingalls Professor of Cancer Genetics at Case and UHC and senior author of the paper, said, "This gene may represent the first of a one-two punch in colon cancer. In colon cancers a dramatic increase of COX-2 is seen. 15-PGDH would act to antagonize and check this increased COX-2 activity. Without 15-PGDH present,unchecked COX-2 goes on to cause abnormal changes on the cellular level, which may lead to tumor development."


Previous studies have shown that patients who take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are COX-2 inhibitors, have a lower incidence of colon cancer. COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to shrink the size of tumors in mice. Markowitz likens the 15-PGDH gene to a naturally occurring COX-2 inhibitor. (Celebrex, a popular arthritis drug, is also a COX-2 inhibitor.)

Markowitz found that 15-PGDH is directly controlled and activated by another gene, called TGF-beta. Normally, TGF-beta sends a signal that allows the colon to shed cells weekly as a way of helping to block development of colon cancers. In 1995, Markowitz discovered colon cancers have mutations that inactivate the TGF-beta pathway.

"If there is no TGF-beta signal, there is no 15-PGDH. That means the opponent to COX-2 is gone, and the COX-2 oncogene activity is unopposed," said Markowitz. "This interaction between TGF-beta and 15-PGDH points to the importance of the TGF-beta system in suppressing colon cancer. These genes give us targets that we can aim for in the development of new drugs or gene therapies that may help us treat or prevent colon cancer," said Markowitz, who is also an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Lead authors on the paper are Min Yan of the departments of medicine, molecular and microbiology at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and the Ireland Cancer Center at University Hospitals of Cleveland, and Ronald M. Rerko of Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Also involved were researchers from the University of Kentucky and the Protein Design Laboratories in Freemont, Calif.

George Stamatis | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.case.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Topologische Quantenchemie
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

nachricht Topological Quantum Chemistry
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA looks to solar eclipse to help understand Earth's energy system

21.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

Stanford researchers develop a new type of soft, growing robot

21.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Vortex photons from electrons in circular motion

21.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>