Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers discover new gene in colon cancer

14.12.2004


A naturally occurring COX-2 inhibitor



Cancer researchers at the Case Western Reserve University (Case) School of Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland (UHC) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have found a "Celebrex-like" gene that suppresses the growth of colon cancer. The researchers discovered that the gene, called 15-PGDH, is found in normal cells and is virtually undetectable in colon cancer cells. When the researchers restored the gene in tumor cells and injected them into immune-deficient mice, the mice showed little or no tumor development. The study appears in the Dec. 14 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The gene 15-PGDH acts as an antagonist to control an enzyme called COX-2. An increase in COX-2 is a major early event in the genesis of human colon tumors.

Sanford Markowitz, M.D., the Francis Wragg Ingalls Professor of Cancer Genetics at Case and UHC and senior author of the paper, said, "This gene may represent the first of a one-two punch in colon cancer. In colon cancers a dramatic increase of COX-2 is seen. 15-PGDH would act to antagonize and check this increased COX-2 activity. Without 15-PGDH present,unchecked COX-2 goes on to cause abnormal changes on the cellular level, which may lead to tumor development."


Previous studies have shown that patients who take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are COX-2 inhibitors, have a lower incidence of colon cancer. COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to shrink the size of tumors in mice. Markowitz likens the 15-PGDH gene to a naturally occurring COX-2 inhibitor. (Celebrex, a popular arthritis drug, is also a COX-2 inhibitor.)

Markowitz found that 15-PGDH is directly controlled and activated by another gene, called TGF-beta. Normally, TGF-beta sends a signal that allows the colon to shed cells weekly as a way of helping to block development of colon cancers. In 1995, Markowitz discovered colon cancers have mutations that inactivate the TGF-beta pathway.

"If there is no TGF-beta signal, there is no 15-PGDH. That means the opponent to COX-2 is gone, and the COX-2 oncogene activity is unopposed," said Markowitz. "This interaction between TGF-beta and 15-PGDH points to the importance of the TGF-beta system in suppressing colon cancer. These genes give us targets that we can aim for in the development of new drugs or gene therapies that may help us treat or prevent colon cancer," said Markowitz, who is also an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Lead authors on the paper are Min Yan of the departments of medicine, molecular and microbiology at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and the Ireland Cancer Center at University Hospitals of Cleveland, and Ronald M. Rerko of Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Also involved were researchers from the University of Kentucky and the Protein Design Laboratories in Freemont, Calif.

George Stamatis | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.case.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond
21.11.2017 | Emory Health Sciences

nachricht The main switch
21.11.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Previous evidence of water on mars now identified as grainflows

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope completes final cryogenic testing

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond

21.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>