Every year, millions of people try to look younger by taking injections of Botox, a prescription drug that gets rid of facial wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing muscles in the forehead. Although best known as a cosmetic procedure, Botox injections also have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat uncontrolled blinking (blepharospasm), lazy eye (strabismus), involuntary muscle contractions in the neck (cervical dystonia) and acute underarm sweating (severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis).
Botox users might be surprised to learn that theyre actually receiving minute injections of a bacterial neurotoxin called botulinum, one of the most poisonous substances known. Exposure to large amounts of botulinum bacteria can cause a paralytic, sometimes-fatal disease called botulism. Last month, several Floridians were hospitalized with botulism after receiving injections of an anti-wrinkle treatment that authorities suspect was a cheap, non-FDA-approved imitation of Botox.
The botulinum toxin works by invading nerve cells, where it releases an enzyme that prevents muscle contraction. In recent years, scientists have determined that the enzyme binds to specific sites on proteins called SNAREs, which form a complex in the synapse between nerve and muscle cells. Without SNAREs, nerves cannot release the chemical signals that tell muscle cells to contract, and paralysis results. "The botulinum enzyme selectively attacks one of the SNARE proteins and cuts it into two pieces," said Stanford University Professor Axel T. Brunger. "Thats sufficient to disrupt its function. But the means by which the enzyme identifies and cleaves its target SNARE has been a subject of much speculation."
Mark Shwartz | EurekAlert!
Ambush in a petri dish
24.11.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
23.11.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology
High-precision measurement of the g-factor eleven times more precise than before / Results indicate a strong similarity between protons and antiprotons
The magnetic moment of an individual proton is inconceivably small, but can still be quantified. The basis for undertaking this measurement was laid over ten...
Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
24.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.11.2017 | Health and Medicine
24.11.2017 | Earth Sciences