Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Genetic defect confers risk of major depression, resistance to SSRI drug therapy

10.12.2004


A newly discovered genetic defect might represent an important risk factor for major depression, a condition which effects 20 million people in the U.S., according to Duke University Medical Center researchers. The mutation in the gene -- whose protein product plays a primary role in synthesizing the brain chemical serotonin -- could lead to the first diagnostic test for genetic predisposition to depression, the team said.



"Abnormalities in brain levels of serotonin have been widely suspected as a key contributor to major depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders," said James B. Duke professor Marc Caron, Ph.D., a researcher in the department of cell biology, the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy and senior author of the study. "Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism underlying dysfunction in serotonin neurotransmission in some patients with depression."

The genetic defect is the first genetic variant of functional consequence in the production of serotonin identified in any psychiatric disorder, the researchers said. Patients with depression who carry the abnormal gene also show resistance to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of drugs that includes paroxetine (PaxilTM), sertraline (ZoloftTM), and fluoxetine (ProzacTM), the team found. In addition to its diagnostic use, the genetic marker might therefore also aid in identifying, in advance, those patients who will likely fail to respond well to SSRI therapy.


The researchers further suggest that this and other variants of the gene might also explain such paradoxical adverse reactions to SSRI treatment as suicidal behavior and SSRI-exacerbated mania and psychosis. The Duke team reported its findings Dec. 9, 2004, in the early online edition of Neuron. The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the Human Frontiers Science Program and the Canadian Institute of Health Research.

The brain is a network of billions of cells called neurons. When stimulated, neurons fire, sending a wave of electrical signals from one end to the other. One neuron will trigger an impulse in others by launching bursts of chemical neurotransmitters, including serotonin, that set off an impulse in receiving neurons. Once the original cell has passed its message on, it sops up the chemical it released to dampen that signal and prepare for the next.

If serotonin levels are decreased, communication among neurons stalls. Such decrease may occur in patients with depression and other psychiatric disorders including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. SSRIs counteract the depletion by slowing the re-uptake of serotonin, allowing the body to make the best use of abnormally low levels of the chemical messenger, the researchers explained.

Scientists had long considered the enzyme known as tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1) to be the sole enzyme governing serotonin synthesis in the nervous system. Last year, however, researchers at another institution found that a second enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), is present in the brain, while the earlier discovered TPH1 is found primarily in peripheral nerves. Caron’s team reported earlier this year that different variants of that enzyme have a major effect on brain levels of serotonin in mice, suggesting that the human variant of the gene might underlie psychiatric disorders characterized by low levels of the chemical messenger.

To search for variants of TPH2, researchers screened the genomes of 48 individuals included in another Duke study of psychosocial and behavioral risk. Among these samples, the researchers uncovered one novel variant of the gene that generates a mutant TPH2 enzyme. The team then inserted both versions of TPH2 into cell cultures. Cells expressing the mutant TPH2 enzyme produced approximately 80 percent less serotonin than did cells with the more common form of the brain enzyme, they found.

The researchers then searched for the gene in 87 patients with unipolar major depression, 60 patients with bipolar disorder, and 219 control patients not diagnosed with either condition. Of those individuals, more than 10 percent (nine of 87 individuals) of those with major depression carried the abnormal serotonin synthesis gene, compared to one percent (three of 219 individuals) of those in the control group. None of the patients with bipolar disorder were found to have the mutant gene.

Seven of the patients with depression who carried the defective gene also had a family history of mental illness or drug and alcohol abuse, six had exhibited suicidal behavior or had made a suicide attempt and four had generalized anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, all of the patients with the mutant gene were either unresponsive to treatment with SSRIs or only responded to the drugs when prescribed at the highest doses.

The three control patients with the mutant gene, who had not been diagnosed with major depression, did display clinical symptoms, including generalized anxiety, mild depression and a family history of mental illness or drug and alcohol abuse -- further suggesting a higher susceptibility for certain neuropsychiatric disorders in the presence of the abnormal gene variant. "The current study identifies a functional genetic variant, which leads to a major decline in the production of serotonin and which may be an important risk factor for major depression," said Duke researcher Xiaodong Zhang, Ph.D., lead author of the study. "The findings provide a potential molecular mechanism for aberrations in the production of serotonin that underlie depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders."

"We believe this is a major finding with implications not only for understanding the cause and development of depression, but also its treatment and management," added R. Ranga Krishnan, chairman of psychiatry at Duke and an investigator on the study. "Depression can seriously impact a person’s functioning, both at work and with their family, and can lead to suicidal thoughts and actions, making more effective diagnosis and treatments a high priority."

Further large-scale genetic studies are needed to confirm the findings and investigate in detail the connection between the mutant TPH2 and unipolar major depression, the researchers said. The team will also explore the presence of this and other functional mutations in the serotonin enzyme in people with a wide range of other serotonin-related conditions -- such as generalized anxiety disorders, suicidal behavior, autism and drug abuse -- and in those with adverse reactions to treatment with SSRIs.

Collaborators on the study include Raul Gainetdinov, Jean-Martin Beaulieu, Tatyana Sotnikova, Lauranell Burch, Redford Williams and David Schwartz, all of Duke.

Kendall Morgan | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.duke.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht MicroRNA helps cancer evade immune system
19.09.2017 | Salk Institute

nachricht Ruby: Jacobs University scientists are collaborating in the development of a new type of chocolate
18.09.2017 | Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

Im Focus: Fast, convenient & standardized: New lab innovation for automated tissue engineering & drug

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...

Im Focus: Silencing bacteria

HZI researchers pave the way for new agents that render hospital pathogens mute

Pathogenic bacteria are becoming resistant to common antibiotics to an ever increasing degree. One of the most difficult germs is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a...

Im Focus: Artificial Enzymes for Hydrogen Conversion

Scientists from the MPI for Chemical Energy Conversion report in the first issue of the new journal JOULE.

Cell Press has just released the first issue of Joule, a new journal dedicated to sustainable energy research. In this issue James Birrell, Olaf Rüdiger,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

New quantum phenomena in graphene superlattices

19.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A simple additive to improve film quality

19.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>