Implications for chronic use of COX-2 Inhibitors in pre-menopausal women
Heart disease is less pronounced in women than in men as humans age, but this difference narrows after menopause. Some studies have shown that estrogen slows heart disease in mouse models, but the mechanism is largely unknown. Now scientists from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine show for the first time that in female mice protection from hardening of the arteries purported to come from higher levels of estrogen acts predominately through cyclooxygenase (COX)-2.
Garret FitzGerald, MD, Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology, and colleagues found that estrogen binds to a cell receptor that activates COX-2, which in turn ramps up the production of the prostacyclin PGI2. This biochemical provides protective benefits both by inhibiting platelet activation and by reducing oxidative stress in the circulatory system by increasing expression of an antioxidant enzyme. Earlier experiments in mice by the FitzGerald lab and others have shown that platelet activation and oxidative stress can independently hasten hardening of the arteries. The most recent findings appear in the November 18 issue of Science.
Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
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On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
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Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
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Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
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