A team of Stanford University researchers led by Richard Myers, Ph.D., in collaboration with Chris Amemiya, Ph.D., of the Benaroya Research Institute in Seattle, campaign in the December issue of Genome Research for deciphering the genetic code of a "living fossil" fish, the coelacanth.
The genomic sequence of this large "hollow-spined" fish, which populates deep-sea volcanic caves, could hold valuable clues for biologists studying the evolution of vertebrate species. Coelacanths were believed to have been extinct until a live specimen was discovered in 1938 off the coast of South Africa. Both of the known coelacanth species that survive today, Latimeria chalumnae and Latimeria menadoensis, are anatomically similar to their fossil relatives. Furthermore, coelacanths have exhibited little morphological change since their emergence during the Devonian period approximately 360 million years ago.
To date, complete genomic sequences for more than 200 organisms have been obtained, and hundreds more are currently in progress (www.genomesonline.org). These efforts will enable scientists to perform detailed comparisons of the complete genetic codes from multiple species, identifying the sequence changes that contributed to evolutionary adaptation and speciation. Although a wide assortment of species have been chosen for sequencing, ranging from lampreys to armadillos (www.genome.gov/12511858), Myers observed: "Were missing an organism that could really shed light on the emergence of land vertebrates. We dont know what genomic changes accompanied the transition from water to land, and a coelacanth genome could help identify those events."
Maria A. Smit | EurekAlert!
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Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
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Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
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For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
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An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
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A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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